Kotter’s Eight Stages Versus Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson Textbook

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Kotter’s Eight Stages versus Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson Textbook John Kotter’s discussed a process of eight stages that should be used to create change in an organization or business environment. His eight stages will be compared and contrasted with the textbook used in the Organizational Behavior course. While some of his stages correlate with the textbook, there are differences as well. Stage 1: Establishing a Sense of Urgency According to Kotter, a sense of urgency is important to gain buy-in from the employees of the organization. It is essential to reduce complacency and increase urgency by developing a vision that others will encompass. With the economy in our society today, people are keeping their jobs even if they do not have job satisfaction. People seem to become complacent with their jobs because they are at least collecting a paycheck and receiving health care benefits. (Kotter, Pg 48) Job satisfaction correlates with Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Related to the Job. Maslow’s needs include physiological, safety and security, belongingness, social and love. The fourth level is esteem while the fifth level is self-actualization. Maslow believes that “a satisfied need ceases to motivate.” (Ivancevich, Pg 117) People become complacent because they are getting a paycheck or receiving benefits that meet their needs. Maslow believed that unfulfilled needs are predominant and that the next sets of needs aren’t triggered until the existing needs are met. Factors that are associated with job satisfaction include pay, work itself, promotion opportunities, supervision, co-workers, working conditions, and job security. The sense of complacency that people find themselves in with their job can be connected to the “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” saying. Alderfer’s ERG Theory involves only three sets of needs. The needs include: Existence, Relatedness, and

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