But Mary never knew what Elizabeth had in mind. Elizabeth established Protestantism as the England's religion once again. During her reign, a major accomplishment of hers was the defeat of the Spanish Armada of 132 by the English fleet of 34 ships and 163 armed merchant vessels. Elizabeth earned a lot of respect from her people, and was referred to as “The Peoples Queen”. Now, what if someone else had come to power?
Mary's father was anxious for all his children to make good marriages, and many of the other kings and queens of Europe wanted Mary as a wife for one of their sons. She was first betrothed to Charles of Castile, later the Holy Roman Emperor. This betrothal was broken later, and she did not get married until after her brother Henry became king. When Mary was 18 she married King Louis XII of France, who was 52 years old. She was married in Abbeville, France, on 9 October 1514.
Joan of Arc claimed to have been inspired by divine visions and voices, beginning in her teens, to save France from the English and their Burgundian allies. She lead the French military on many successful campaigns against the invading English, and had ‘The Dauphin’ crowned as King Charles VII in Paris in July 1429. However when she was captured in battle and handed over to the English, they used her unorthodox claims to try her as a Heretic at Rouen, the center of English rule in France. There are several primary sources presented to us about the trial of Joan of Arc, from the manuscript of an anonymous author written in 1500, to a letter written by Joan herself along with extracts of the transcript of the trial. From each of these we can see the great positive impact of a person claiming to have been influenced by the divine if they are to be believed.
And Ofelia’s brother, with whom Carmen is pregnant, is reminiscent of King Juan Carlos, the current Spanish monarch who endured decades as a seeming enabler and supporter of Franco only to emerge after his death as a full-fledged democrat and saviour of the nation. In the film, Carmen endures a harrowing pregnancy and eventually dies during childbirth. Her son survives at least partly due to the fairy aid that Ofelia provides from night-time forays into
Oliver Cromwell rose to power by being a member of Parliament. Although he was merely a Gentleman farmer, he was wealthy enough to become an MP. He achieved a more important role when he was asked to help parliament fight the King. The main reasons for civil war braking out were King Charles I being stubborn and selfish. For example, he re-introduced Ship tax, and believed in Divine Right.
Britain's American empire was slowly expanded by war and colonization. Victory over the French during the Seven Years' War gave Britain control over almost all of North America. Mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies. Mercantilism meant that the government and the merchants became partners with the goal of increasing political power and private wealth, to the exclusion of other empires. The government protected its merchants—and kept others out—by trade barriers, regulations, and subsidies to domestic industries in order to maximize exports from and minimize imports to the realm.
Vasco De Gama reached India in 1498. This was the beginning of the European infiltration of Indian Ocean trade, bringing about many changes. The Portuguese took over more trade and established ports like Goa in India. Then Britain too dominated trade in conjunction with joint stock companies like the Dutch East India Company. The Chinese traded silks, porcelain and other luxury goods with Europe and Arabia, even as the Ming set rules up for when, where and who could trade at specific spots.
These governmental changes were guided by European powers and were essential to the westernizing of Japan as a whole. Militarily, Japan established a new army modeled after Prussia, and a navy modeled after Britain in later years (PC 557). Economically, Japan adopted a national currency with decimal units, and passed money control and currency to the management of the central government (PC 557). In 1859, Japan borrowed its first foreign loan. By the end of the 19th century, foreign trade valued at two-hundred million dollars per year.
While Great Britain emerged a victor of the Seven Years war, it was nearly bankrupt at its completion in 1763. This led the British government to raise revenues throughout its empire in order to reset its forces. Ironically, while Great Britain was attempting to prepare for the next war against its European neighbors, it was creating the conditions for an unforeseen conflict with the
But unexpectedly it wrote that Lady Jane grey, (who was a protestant) should perform as the next queen in Edward’s will. But this wasn’t too bad, as, Lady Jane Grey only achieved to stay queen for 9 days, because people of England protested for Mary to Reign. This came true on 19th July 1553 when Mary was proclaimed queen at St Pauls Cathedral and coroneted on 1st October 1553 at Westminster Abbey’s. Mary achieved to undertake her duty as queen of England for 5 years. But as Mary was very strict and punctual catholic; she had the duty of transferring England into a Roman Catholic country, as England was left protestant by Lady Jane Grey.