Mazzini created the Young Italy society after the 1831 revolutions. Young Italy helped spread opposition to the autocratic nature of the Italian rulers. It was established to create a republican nation-state. Although ‘Young Italy’ was still a small-scale, secret nationalist society, its effect on Italian attitudes was large, speaking in the long-term. Similar to the Carbonari groups, it was planned as a youth movement for the whole peninsula so had the potential to gain widespread and active support.
It could be argued by many that the Vienna Settlement was the most significant reason why the prospect of Italy being unified in 1815 seemed implausible. However, there are many other considerable explanations, such as the role of Austria in many of the Italian states, and in particular Klemens Von Metternich himself who said at the Settlement that he wanted to “extinguish the spirit of Italian Unity”. It is extremely important that the significance of religion and the Church, as well as the Restored Monarchies and the idea of Campanellism in the early 19th Century are recognized, with the part these factors play in the prospect of Italian Unification. The Vienna Settlement is arguably one of the most crucial events in Italian history. Before 1815, Italy was ruled over by Napoleon and the country had a hugely influenced by France and it’s regimes.
Both Lubitsch and Blake Edwards were both the most well-known and loved filmmakers of their respective eras. In both instances people would instantly recognize a Lubitsch and Blake Edwards film, so unique was their craft with signature touches. In the case of Lubitsch it was his use of satire, “Why shouldn’t I kiss Mitzi- should I misbehave or not?’ which draws on a element of Brechtian theatre of breaking the forth wall as Dr. Andre Bertier (Maurice Chevalier) speaks directly to the audience. Stimutanelously this element with used in “Pink Panther” By Edwards, in the scene, which prince Dala (Claudia Cardinale) holds a ball in Cortina D’Ampezzo to celebrate the reseizure of her sleigh, Amber by Sir Charles Litton (David Niven). The Greek “cousin” (Fran Jeffries) sings “Meglio Stasera” with her eyes staring through the camera and at the audience in most time of the dance, in additional, the background figures were all sitting properly on the sofa watching her performance by following her dance steps just as if they are audience like we do.
Commedia Dell' Arte and Moliere Commedia Dell’ Arte was a distinctive form of stage art in the 1600’s and the famous playwright Moliere furthered its acceptance and import throughout his life. Originating in Italy, the popular art form spread quickly with the aid of traveling troops. One area that was greatly affected by this form of theater was France. The French people adored this theater and made it fit in with their culture. This can be seen in an essay by Gustave Lanson when he states, “In Paris Italian farce had replaced French farce.” The success of Commedia Dell’ Arte during the reign of Charles IX is well-known” (Lanson, 137).
Films sometimes use plays as their sources. William Shakespeare has been called the most popular screenwriter in Hollywood. We are likely to assume that any translation of a Shakespeare text into a ‘live’ dramatic form-theatrical performance, film adaptation, television production-will automatically constitute a progressive act. Shakespeare is so frequently adapted because he is a major author. There are also economic and legal factors: Shakespeare is helpfully outside copyright law as well as interesting to adapt.
It was mostly influenced by the Ancient Greeks and Old Roman Empire. It means rebirth and very many things changed in Italy and then those ideas spread around the world, they had a different way of thinking about themselves which lead to humanism, and also they cared much more about art, architecture, inventions and science. The architecture dramatically changed in the Renaissance. The rich Italians wanted new churches and so they could pay money for the architectures and its workers to build the churches with a new style, not Gothic because it’s the Renaissance and everything had to change. They copied the style from the Old roman buildings.
In the reading Death in Venice, adapting Mann and Mahler written by Henry Bacon, the author discusses both sides of the opinions and interpretations of Visconti’s film. The success of the film was greatly built on the combined ‘superpower’ like reputations of Visconti, Mahler and Mann. These reputations created a set standard for the film. The visual nature of film, and the changes made to the plot created a collection of interpretative issues for the piece. Some critics even saw the film as a perversion of the novella and that the relationship between Aschenbach and Tadziu was ruined through the visual aspects film.
Like many political transitions, it was an untidy and complicated process. Although from the start Mussolini’s intentions were quite difficult to establish, however it could be that Mussolini wanted to set up from the beginning a totalitarian one party state. The first consolidation of fascist power was to strengthen his position in certain aspects. Such as he had to strengthen his position in the government, he still continued his threats of violence to opposition such as the socialists who were very popular since they believed in helping the working class and setting up trade unions to help people improve their work/life conditions each other, so many Italians were on their side. Mussolini’s position as prime minister in October 1922 was by no means secure, the king was still able to at any time dismiss him if any opposition to the fascist party was high and people wanted an alternative government.
Riefenstahl’s production of the feature films Triumph of the Will and Olympia have left a lasting imprint on history; these films established Riefenstahl’s influential career as a film director under the years of the Nazi regime. Although these films are attributed by scholars and critics to be Riefenstahl’s greatest achievements they are also considered to be her greatest fault, for the political denotation attached to their purpose. Before World War II, Riefenstahl was praised for her artistic achievements of these films, however the post war years present a hostile reception to her work, as they have since been decontextualized and criticized for their questionable propagandist content. Riefenstahl’s impact on history has changed greatly overtime, as she is remembered for both her artistic contribution to the social and cultural life of Germany and pioneering of revolutionary cinematography and in contrast her association with the Nazi party and her apparent glorification of the ‘Fascist aesthetic’. The artistic flair behind Riefenstahl’s production of Triumph of the Will lays testimony to her revolutionary filming technique that assiduously cultivated her image as the one of the greatest female artists of her era.
BLADE RUNNER The Cruellest Cut by Elaine Lennon Introduction - Genre Genre films are Hollywood's lifeblood: they define American cinema as we know it. These are standardised films made to type engendering a disciplined framework not only in an aesthetic sense for filmmakers but also (and crucially in an industry renowned for its flops as well as its hits) economically, guaranteeing repeat success with the mass audience. A genre film (like any other kind of film) has a social and cultural function, sometimes aligned with the myths of the past, perhaps even reducing them in importance. The Great Narratives of the West (typically Judaeo-Christian belief systems) are now rivalled in the cathedrals of celluloid that we call the multiplexes. It could be claimed that generic forms transmit ideological precepts, be they social, political or whatever, either imposing values or questioning pre-existent ideas.