Environment psychology is the study of how physical space around us influences the way one person feels, think and interacts with the world. This topic of how the environment can affect us is important because it influences everyone. We depend on the environment for survival. Examples such as the food chain, resources, ecosystem, and other important factors would be affected if the environment were not good. The definition of the word “environment” is the surrounding area that we interact with.
After I have established a framework to work within, I will discuss Weber’s conceptualization of the Protestant ethic, and how it relates to the dominance of the capitalist spirit across cultures and countries. Weber uses the term ‘spirit of capitalism’ technically throughout the book, and it is an important – if not the most important – concept to understand if we are to make sense of his claims. However, even Weber does not have a concrete definition of the term. In fact, he claims that the idea is a union of several elements from historical reality2. Only from this union can we draw the cultural and historical significance that would otherwise remain concealed.
It is necessary to go outside the commonsensical box of accepted socially engineered thinking to reconstruct an ideology that reflects a well-cultured thinking process. Throughout the remainder of this essay, I will demonstrate how the inherent restlessness of a liberal society led into the age of development, wealth, and inequality by articulating the ideas displayed within Why Globalization works by, Martin Wolf. Furthermore, I will use Philip McMichael’s work titled, Development and Social Change to critically analyze the processes described by Wolf. To begin, wolfs analysis begins with the necessary ingredients to first establish markets within a society. He claims the advent of markets is due to the rational decisions made by the individual; in particular the merchant and the consumer.
This essay will focus on the works of Marx prior to 1846 specifically on the dominant theme of alienation and freedom. An attempt is made to paint an account of Marx’s concept of alienated labour which includes a discussion on the concept of alienation and the four types of alienation and how freedom can be achieved. In this regard understanding the influences on young Marx are also important and hence a brief discussion on the same is included. In the early works of Marx, notably his Economic
With this many other economists had used his work to build on it and make economics more solid and complete the economic theory. It is said that the Laissez-faire tells or predicts that the government taxation and intervention should minimize the role in the free markets. The main idea of that an “Invisible hand” guides supply and demand are among the key ideas of Smith’s writing is responsible for promoting. The idea of this is that this reflects the concept of each person by looking out for him or herself, which will create the best outcome for all. This is the idea that Adam Smith saw for the society as a whole.
In this new capitalist period, the more simplified means of production as seen in feudalism, had developed into a “complex industrial state” as stated in Haralambos and Holborn (2008). Capitalism brought a new way to sustain humanity; industrial production. Marxism, as a sociological theory, focuses on the economics of Britain. Lee and Newby (1983) say that to “organize the production of its subsistence” is the most basic human instinct. The economy provides us with our means of survival and defines our society.
Alienation Karl Marx, one of the founders of / Conflict Theory in Sociology, was very concerned with the idea of alienation in capitalism. There are four types of alienation . They are alienation from worker from product, worker from worker, species being, and man to man. I will go more into depth of these four types of alienation later. Alienating is a very powerful way to keep the worker under the owners belt.
This essay will address the key ideas of Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim, two founding fathers in sociology. Their views on capitalism and the resulting advantages and disadvantages for society are compared and contrasted referring to their main ideas. Starting with Marx and his explanation of the working processes of capitalist society – followed by his criticism - paying particular attention to his ideas of class, alienation and exploitation. This is followed by Durkheim’s views on capitalist societies. His concepts of mechanical and organic societies, as well as his fascination with the division of labour and the connections to (social) solidarity and moral, are presented – followed by anomie.
One of the most important themes in Weber’s work is the concept of rationalization. Many of his theoretical studies are devoted to understanding the process of rationalization. This was done by looking at why modern societies took the form that they did. It is important because his stress on this concept is what set him apart from Karl Marx. Marx claimed that material factors were dominant in history, but Weber believed a more common outlook was needed in the understanding of the pattern of history’s development.
Merging key insights from seminal figures like B.F. Skinner and Sigmund Freud, Henriques constructs a narrative for the evolutionary processes that gave rise to a uniquely human self-consciousness system (Henriques, 2004) that functions to allow humans to develop justifiable reasons for what they do. Henriques points to the location of the evolutionary threshold human beings have crossed by reviewing empirical research on the nature and limits of animal selfawareness using the mirror self-recognition (MSR) paradigm. In this paradigm, animals are given