Jurgen Habermas is one of the most recognized philosophers of contemporary times. The body of his works covers from social and political theories to such other subject matters as religion, language and aesthetics.
Jurgen Habermas ideas on public sphere are expostulated in his book, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere and various other lectures, essays and writings. In The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Habermas showed how modern European salons, cafés, and literary groups contain the resources for democratizing the public sphere. He did this on the basis of a general theory of human interests, according to which different areas of human knowledge and inquiry—e.g., the physical, biological, and social sciences—are expressions of distinct, but equally basic, human interests. These basic interests are in turn unified by reason's overarching pursuit of its own freedom, which is expressed in scholarly disciplines that are critical of unfree modes of social life.1
Habermas outlined a historical and sociological account of the coming into existence; flourishing and death of what he termed the bourgeois public sphere based on rational critical debate and discussion.2
Most contemporary theories of public sphere are gotten from Habermas’ ideas.
The following are Habermas’ ideas on the public sphere: * The bourgeoisie public sphere may be conceived above all as the sphere of private people come together as a public; they soon claimed the public sphere regulated from above against the public authorities themselves, to engage them in a debate over the general rules governing relations in the basically privatized but publicly relevant sphere of commodity exchange and social labour. 3 * Habermas called for a concept of public opinion formation “that is historically meaningful, that normatively meets the requirement of the