Sigmund Freud is recognised as being one of the great forefathers of modern day psychology. He wrote at a time when society was much more inhibited than it is today, perhaps his views and theories are representative of the socio historical context in which he wrote and conducted his enquires? His theories have done much to develop our understandings of the psyche. Freud’s theory of psycho sexual development is a bio social theory, one that explains the Biological (instinctual) and the Social (Socialization). We live in a world that is in many ways characterised by restraint, conformity and inhibition, Some of Freud’s main works contribute to our understanding of our relationships toward this social world.
This means early experiences play a critical role in our lives. Freud believed the human mind has both unconscious and conscious areas. The unconscious part is seen as being dominated by the id, a primitive part of the human personality that seeks only gratification and pleasure. It isn’t concerned with social rules, only with self-gratification and it is driven by the ‘pleasure principle.’ It is said psychopaths are ID led. The disregard for our consequences of behaviour is referred to as ‘primary process thinking’.
Also identifying behaviors that contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding. The next theory that fits as well is psychodynamic that deals more with the unconscious mind and childhood experiences of the individual. “But are persons really responsible for their actions in the sense that they (1) assess the possible alternative courses of action available to them, (2) choose a particular course, and (3) construct a complex set of acts to achieve intended results? Our religions and our laws are based on the premise that these propositions are true. And so are our emotional responses.
Psychodynamic Personality Theories: An Analysis Psychodynamic Personality Theories: An Analysis The psychodynamic theories of personality are a collection of theories that developed from Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, and just as Freud’s theory, the psychodynamic theories give ample emphasis to unconscious processes, and the effects of early childhood experiences into personality formation (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2006). The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief analysis on the strengths and limitations of the psychodynamic theories of personality as it explains individual behavior. The following include as well the answers of how psychodynamic theories affect individual personalities, the influences of such assumptions on interpersonal relationships. Effects of Psychodynamic Theories on Personality Psychodynamic theories focus on human personalities. The psychodynamics theories of personality developed from Sigmund Freud’s thoughts and believes, which mainly focuses on human drives such as sexual and aggressive drives (C, 2006).
Psychodynamic is the next theory that fits as well. This is associated more with childhood experiences and the unconscious mind of the individual. According to Grove (1994), “But are persons really responsible for their actions in the sense that they (1) assess the possible alternative courses of action available to them, (2) choose a particular course, and (3) construct a complex set of acts to achieve intended results” (p. 74). Our laws, our religions, and our emotional responses are established on the principles that these are factual intentions. When the events of others have an effect on our lives, and we recognize their reactions to be determined entirely by power beyond their limitations, there is then no cause for feelings of either anger or gratitude (Grove,
He also linked some childhood desires with the development of ones personality. The psychoanalytic theory is founded on the basis that there are inner forces that influence ones behavior unconsciously. This theory was developed after a thorough observation of people’s behavior where Sigmund conducted case studies. Feud argued that human mind can be divided three parts; the conscious mind, the preconscious mind and the unconscious mind. According to Asch M (2004), the conscious mind includes the things that we are aware of.
As it focuses on conscious experiences it is able to help a person have a healthy transition from reactionary behaviours to thoughtful actions. It reflects the clients feelings back to them. Psychodynamic theory The psychodynamic approach was founded by psychologist Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory but the psychodynamic approach as a whole is based upon theories from his ideas. These came from Jung, Erikson and Adler.
However the theoretical differences are more apparent. The psychodynamic approach is heavily influenced in a biological sense and focuses mainly on the unconscious. The emphasis in the therapeutic relationship is why they feel/act the way they do. Therapy assumes the problems we face as adults stems from childhood experiences. Cognitive-behavioural approach places more emphasis on techniques and strategies.
Comparison and Contrast of Behavioral and Cognitive Theories Key concepts/unique attributes Both B. F. Skinner and Albert Bandura believed behavior is the result of what is learned from experience (Corey, 2009). Whereas Skinner believed environmental influences control people, Bandura believed people are goal-oriented and have specific intentions and purposes. He believed the basis for learning is observing others. Traditional behavioral theory is based on the concepts of classical and operant conditioning and that learning produces behavior (Corey, 2009). Inappropriate or abnormal behavior results when learning is based on maladapted learning, or learning as a result of maladaptive reactions.
Such |back up people behavior, whether good or bad. Good |in more adaptive ways by changing the dysfunctional | | |therapy also helps bring unresolved past conflicts and |behavior is maintained by reinforcement, while abnormal or|cognitions about themselves, the world, and the society | | |unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the |unwanted behavior can be eliminated by punishment. The |they live in. Cognitive therapists attempt to change the | | |conscious, where patients have the chance to deal with |treatment builds on the basic processes of learning, such |way people think as well as their behavior in cognitive | | |those conflicts more effectively. |as reinforcement and extinction, and assumes that normal |treatment.