Rawls also speaks to the issues of social cooperation, which is governed by publically recognized rules that once again, focus on political practicability and the rational advantages that would extend from this cooperation. He believes that ultimately, justice as fairness is the outgrowth of a political or practicable conception that is rooted in the concept of society as a fair system of cooperation between citizens as free and equal persons. Rawls closes by assessing a liberal view, advanced by Kant and Mill, that assesses social stability from a viewpoint of a political doctrine, which holds that we should champion a free democratic culture with conflicting and incommensurable conceptions of the good affirmed by its
Rawls’ Principles of Justice “Justice is the virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought”(Rawls, p. 581). John Rawls’ book, A Theory of Justice, is an in-depth analysis and interpretation of social justice. Rawls presents and discusses two principles of justice, the liberty principle and the equality principle, which are the basis of his theory on justice. Rawls’ first principle of justice states “Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others”(Rawls, p. 586). This principle is basically asserting that fundamental liberties come first over anything concerning justice.
Natural Moral Law is a theory that is explained by Thomas Aquinas and Aristotle. It states that there is a natural order to our world that should be followed. It was originated in the philosophy of Aristotle and then developed by Aquinas. Natural Law is an absolute theory of ethics but it is not rooted in duty but in our human nature and our search for genuine happiness and fulfilment. Aquinas considered that by using our reason to reflect on our human nature we could discover our specific end purpose.
Human rights are the fundamental rights that humans have by the fact of being human, and that neither created nor can be abrogated by any government. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights did not just emerge easily from a vacuum and it would be the final declaration aimed at securing certain rights for citizens in nation-states. What the declaration includes is traced back to Magna Carta (1215). Those that came after have emerged as strategic responses to social and political alteration. John Locke, who is often credited as the father of human rights and liberalism, maintained that humans were free and equal, and that the ideal society was based on a social contract between the humans and those who governed.
Natural Moral law is an absolute ethical theory that states that there is natural order to the world we live in. It is believed that is order is established by some supernatural power. Natural Moral law originated in the philosophy of the ancient Greeks, especially that of Aristotle and Aquinas. This theory that is being tested to see if it is the best approach for decision making is not rooted in duty, or an externally
Essay #1: In Support of Moderate Ethical Objectivism Pojman and Fieser put forth a theory of moderate objectivism that asserts that there are objective moral truths. They claim that a moral claim is objectively true when it describes an objective moral principle. An objective moral principle is a rule, which if generally followed, would optimally perform the function of serving human needs and interests by reducing harmful social conflict and promoting beneficial social cooperation. (Luco, Week 6 Notes, p3). This essay aims to prove ethical objectivism by using the form of moderate objectivism.
Equality is a concept quite equivocal, form the Latin aequalitas "equal" , it can be characterized as what is equivalent , which is no different either quantitatively or qualitatively , we need to distinguish equal rights and social equality. This is why, in practice, egalitarian demand is often criticized for hurting individual freedom to the extent that characterized by the absence of difference, it would lead to uniformity. Consequently, does the claim of equal threat the freedom? However, we will dedicate ourselves to distinguish between no difference and lack of identity, because if equality is reflected in the lack of difference , it is not the lack of identity , so we can refute the argument of equality binds to the uniformity. Thus, the demand for equality is not necessarily antagonistic to that of freedom.
It moves beyond the scope of one's own interests and takes into account the interests of others. In this essay I will examine the Ethical Theory of Utility, its background and its influence upon society to determine if Utilitarianism can be expressed in the phrase “ The greatest good for the greatest number.” U·til·i·tar·i·an·ism 1 [Columbia Encyclopedia] Noun: • The doctrine that actions are right if they are useful or for the benefit of a majority. • The doctrine that an action is right insofar as it promotes happiness, and that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be... Background Jeremy Bentham was the father of Utilitarianism, he was of the left liberal view, influenced by the French revolution and by many enlightenment thinkers, especially empiricists such as John Locke and David Hume.
His ethical theories were presented in two works. The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) was Kant's "search for and establishment of the supreme principle of morality." In The Critique of Practical Reason (1787) Kant attempted to unify his account of practical reason. Kant was the major proponent in history of what is called deontological ethics. Deontology is the study of duty.
(Ruth Abbey: "Charles Taylor" Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 41-47). Taylor who is best classed as a Moral Realist says that that there are both objective characteristics and interpretations concerning morality, that there is a moral world that is independent of, while intimately interwoven with, the self’s interpretation and understanding of it. His analysis of morality is