JOHN LOCKE: Second Treatise on Civil Government (EDITED AND ABRIDGED)
CHAPTER 1 Sec. 1.
In which Locke argues against the idea of Divine Right
It having been shewn in the foregoing discourse,
1. That Adam had not, either by natural right of fatherhood, or by positive donation from God, any such authority over his children, or dominion over the world, as is pretended:
2. That if he had, his heirs, yet, had no right to it:
3. That if his heirs had, there being no law of nature nor positive law of God that determines which is the right heir in all cases that may arise, the right of succession, and consequently of bearing rule, could not have been certainly determined:
4. That if even that had been determined, yet the knowledge of which is the eldest line of Adam's posterity, being so long since utterly lost, that in the races of mankind and families of the world, there remains not to one above another, the least pretence to be the eldest house, and to have the right of inheritance:
All these premises having, as I think, been clearly made out, it is impossible that the rulers now on earth should make any benefit, or derive any the least shadow of authority from that, which is held to be the fountain of all power, Adam's private dominion and paternal jurisdiction.
…So he that will not give just occasion to think that all government in the world is the product only of force and violence, and that men live together by no other rules but that of beasts, where the strongest carries it, and so lay a foundation for perpetual disorder and mischief, tumult, sedition and rebellion, so he must of necessity find out another rise of government, another original of political power….
CHAPTER 1. Sec. 2 and 3
In which Locke describes what he see as political power
To this purpose, I think it may not be amiss, to set down what I take to be political power;
that the power of a MAGISTRATE over a subject may be distinguished from that of a FATHER over his...