He is renowned for his inspirational work and remarkable philosophy on ‘Freedom’ and ‘The Preservation of One’s Property’. Through his treatise, “Of Civil Government” Locke’s ideologies have transcended our modern attitudes and beliefs about governments and how they are held today. His philosophical thoughts have come to be viewed as his greatest contribution to the realm of political theory. Niccolo Machiavelli, a famous Italian writer born in the fourteenth century, is another phenomenal philosopher whose distinct character and bold voice echo to this very day. One of Machiavelli’s extraordinary works was his book ‘The Prince’, in which he candidly
As many would state, one of Niccolo Machiavelli’s greatest influences, is his contribution to the modern state. Through both of his most prominent books, Il Principe and the Discourses of Livy, Machiavelli distinguishes a stark contrast between the principality (a monarchy) and the republic (a state in which political power is held by the public), for which he expresses a distinct preference (Skinner: 202, 189-212). This promotion of republicanism and his assertion of how these states must be structured has significantly influenced the modern state. Such things as the traditional renaissance city-states to the US constitution hold particular evidence to support this claim, both promoting concepts which Machiavelli addresses and also promotes. As is asserted in the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Machiavelli’s views and concepts of the republic are extrapolated in the US constitution, considering that his “republican thought …guided the framers of the American constitution.” Others such as J.G.A Pocock (The Machiavellian Moment, 2007) consider that Machiavelli’s republican thought was present in the establishment and structure of
His principle of authority and power, with a goal of preservation, creates a fusion of antique and modern thought of power, reflecting the reality of the world. Mostly looked through the frame of moralist and religious views, Machiavelli’s principles impact on politics has been pervasive and durable, even though his writings are often seen as unsystematic, conflicting, and at times contradictory. Amongst political philosophers it is commonly argued that a unique relationship between legitimate authority and moral virtue. Plato, for instance,
Two competing political philosophies have always existed throughout the United States’ relatively short history: one seeking to increase the power of the central government, and one seeking to decrease it. During the 1800s, these two conflicting philosophies emerged in confrontations between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson promoted escalating the common man’s role in government. Alexander Hamilton, however, advocated the significance of a sturdy central government in leading the country forward. Both Thomas Jefferson’s and Andrew Hamilton’s beliefs and views helped to shape the United States into the country it is today.
Locke and Montesquieu agreed that government should have limited power over the people. Locke and Montesquieu also both believed in the concept that “people have the power”, and have the power to execute their own rights. Locke and Montesquieu did not agree, however, on how to execute these rights. Yet, Locke and Montesquieu have similar views to some extent. Locke and Montesquieu believed that limited government (government has limits and every person has rights) was best.
These new inclinations of challenging authority became more and more prevalent as the century wore on and became increasingly popular as Britain started infringing on the political rights of the colonists. Some of America’s greatest leaders and minds of the time, like Thomas Jefferson, were also influenced by philosophers who redefined the relationship between the governed and the governor such as John Locke and David Hume. The Declaration of Independence borrows heavily from the ideas of Locke and Hume as well as several other philosophers, thus there are many similarities in the ‘subjects’ of the Glorious Revolution and the American Revolution. The first sentence of the Declaration of Independence mentions the right of people to have political independence in accordance with the ‘Laws of Nature.’ Hume touched on this in The Original Contract by saying, “When we consider how nearly equal all men are in their bodily force, and even in their mental powers…nothing but their own consent could…subject them to any authority.” During this time period many philosophers believed that people naturally had rights
He also rejected the relativist point of view in favor of the view that certain principles of justice and fairness represent the summit of moral maturity. He discovered that these principles are found in different cultures around the world. The topics that Rawls discusses are different than those of Kohlberg. One of these topics is his theory of justice. It is one of the most widely discussed topics in political philosophy.
Durkheim’s Relevant Concepts for Political Sociology Emile Durkheim, as one of the classical sociologists was regarded as the father of modern sociology. He offered more rational theories than any of his contemporaries in classical sociology. He has different concepts that are very much significant to different subjects of sociology. Some of his important concepts were very visible in political sociology. To start, through the many academic researches that Durkheim did, some of his concepts contributed a lot in political sociology would be collective conscience, social fact, and anomie.
Jeffersonian and Jacksonian Democracy Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson were both big influential political figures in two different eras. In their Jeffersonian and Jacksonian Democracy they had a lot of political, economic, social, and religious beliefs. Each formed their own democracy that helped shape the way the government is today. Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson had a couple of similarities in their democracy but they also had a lot of differences too. These men both had good ideas and tried hard to help the United States be the best it can be.
Locke Vs. Rousseau When asked to compare and or contrast the political theories of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, one may the thinking that the easier thing to do is to state their differences due to that fact that these two individuals come from two distinctly different eras of political development. Although this is true, both Locke and Rousseau’s fundamental arguments share similar arguments as well as difference ones. Certain themes such as the state of nature, state of war, and the primary intent of government serve as starting ground for some the two party’s most influential and diverse ideologies. Despite many contradictions believed by some, both parties roved to be greatly influential in the course of the United States’ democratic development. In both Locke’s and Rousseau’s state of nature, the only agreement they have is that men are born free and equal, with no higher authority with the exception of divine power.