The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected. Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment. To enhance the survival of their offspring caregiving is also adaptive and we are born to care for our children. He suggests that infants were born with social releasers (for example: crying/smiling) which encourage caregiving. Bowlby also suggests that there is a best time to form an attachment, this is called the sensitive period where infants are most sensitive to development of attachments and Bowlby would suggest that this is when the child is 3-6 months old.
language and socialisation) Explain the course of development according to these descriptions That is, a theory must account for the transitions from one point in development to another and must identify causal variables affecting transition * Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. # * Reading Chp 6 Boyd & Bee, (2009) PLAN Initial outline of essay Bowlby’s attachment theory was initially developed and then revdeveoped in ollboration with Mary Ainsworth (1969) using their Ganda study The contribution of attachment theory to the social and emotional development of children is critical in assessing the healthy and secure attachment of children to their mother, first and foremost, then, as the child develops through 54 weeks and 2-3 years old – that they begin to relate positively to key carers that play an integral and familiar role in their life. These relationships play a role and can, if the child has had an unstable home and parental environment during their early development, affect detrimentally their ability to form new bonds as adolecscents and possibly adults. However, a child raised in a stable and emotionally secure environment, will develop secure and
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into theworld pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them tosurvive. His theory consists of five clear factors that were linked to the developmentof attachment from an infant to its primary care giver; usually the mother. Firstly hestates that attachments are “adaptive” which means the child is at an advantageto survive as it ensures safety and food in order to reproduce. Bowlby states thatchildren are born with innate social releasers such as laughing, crying and attractivefacial features including big cheeks and large eyes which provide them with extracare and comfort. It is important for the infant to form a bond with its caregiverwithin a certain period of time, also known as the critical period.
‘Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment Suggest that Babies are Biologically Pre-Programmed to form Attachments with the Primary Caregiver as a Survival Mechanism’. Discuss this statement in relation to research into attachment. Bowlby described attachment as being a “…lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.” Bowlby’s Attachment theory focuses on the ‘connectedness’ between infants and their primary caregivers i.e. their mothers, He states that this connection is an innate process which evolved as a survival mechanism to protect the infants and ensure that genes could be passed on. Bowlby’s attachment theory was heavily influenced by Darwin’s survival of the fittest as well as animal studies such as Lorenz’s geese study.
Bowlby put forward a theory of attachment based upon the assumption that attachments are formed due to their evolutionary advantages. The theory states that attachments are adaptive and become attached because of the long term benefits such as feeding and protection from a caregiver. It also states that infants have social releasers which are physical and behavioural characteristics that elicit an innate tendency to look after, such as smiling or crying. The attachment is a monotropic attachment to the mother which occurs within the critical period, which is from birth to two and a half years of age. This attachment helps the infant to form an internal working model which is a schema for all future relationships.
Behavioural and Evolutionary theories of attachment in Psychology are two opposing ideas about the ways in which a child attaches to it's primary caregiver. In this essay I will demonstrate the differences between the two theories and use case studies to provide evidence for both the Behavioural and Evolutionary theories. The Evolutionary theory supports the Nature side of the argument, which basically suggests that attachment is something which is biologically pre-programmed into a child at birth. This means that an infant will emit something which is known as a 'social releaser' (e.g crying, smiling, laughing) because they know an adult will respond. However, the Behavioural theory is part of the Nurture debate, which suggests that attachment is a set of learned behaviours from the environment and is not something that a child is born with.
Tending includes triggers that are intended to protect one self and children. Befriending involves the creation and maintenance of social networks. 5. Can you think of why this alleged gender difference in fight-or-flight and tend-and-befriend may “make sense” from an evolutionary perspective? I think the alleged gender difference in flight-or-light and tend-and-befriend may “make sense” from an evolutionary perspective because the womens’ main purpose were to cultivate and protect their offspring.
If children are to be given the best start they can possibly have then, parents must be provided with sufficient support to enable then to fulfill their child rearing obligations. Parenting Ideology and Perceptions of Parenthood Romagnoli, and Wall (2012) introduce the concept of ‘intensive mothering’ in which they characterize as the ideal form of parenting. They contend that “intensive mothering is centered solely on the needs of children, which have expanded, beyond the physical to include emotional, psychological and cognitive needs.” They go on to say that the transition to the concept of intensive mothering began in the 1990’s during a time when researchers began touting the intellectual and psychological effects of one-on-one time, play and different cognitive activities with infants. Susan Allen’s study on parent’s perceptions of intervention practices revealed that participants felt a need for support and encouragement in their parenting practice. This support was paramount in establishing their confidence in their ability to parent effectively (Allen.
Nature in its plan has devised the sensitive period so as to achieve the construction of the psychic organ and also put an instinct in mother’s that guide them to give protection. Sensitive periods are: 1) Sensitivity to order. The child’s need for order is based on a precise and determined environment. It can be
Attachment, which emerges gradually during the first year and may be an outgrowth of the parent/infant bond, is a strong emotional relationship directed from the infant to the parent or some other significant person. It is based on the quality of the interactions between the child and the parent or caregiver (Black et.al., 1992). Bowlby believed that an infant and its primary caregiver form an attachment. He argued that the newborn is biologically equipped to elicit attachment behaviour. The baby cries, clings, coos, and smiles.