Social and Emotional Development:- the development of a child’s image and identity, relationships and of everyday living and social skills. Intellectual/Communication: - the development of a child’s understanding and development of communication with others. Babies begin to develop there physical development within weeks of being born. A baby will start to smile and respond to sounds and the environment around them. By six months a babies muscles will begin to develop, so they will reach out and hold objects in their hands.
Also this essay will discuss the impact on children and adults of disrupted attachment and separation. Bowlby’s theory of attachment is the idea that children form a two way attachment with their primary caregiver, and this relationship should be warm, intimate and continuous in order for the child to develop properly. Bowlby believed that the relationship between a mother or primary caregiver and their child was most crucial during the first 18 to 24 months of life and that is, was this time, which affected later socialisation. He also thought that there was a sensitive period in the first few years of life and if an attachment was not formed. In addition he suggested the idea of monotropy, which is the suggestion that infants tend to direct attachment behaviours towards a single attachment figure, and that there is one special bond and this is typically between a mother and its child.
It will also affect the foetus. | Pregnancy | By 6 months the baby starts to move | Responsive to voices and sounds | The baby can feel emotion if the mam is feeling upset or stressed. Talking to the baby or even playing music will comfort the baby whilst it’s in the womb. | | Birth and infancy 0-3 years | A newborn baby is able to listen to noises and voices around them; this helps them recognise the voice of the carer and others. The baby will grasp objects or a finger in which they will put in the palm of their hands.
Assignment 023 Understand Child and Young Person Development A1. Below is a table that shows the sequence and rate of development for children and young people from birth to 19 years. Physical development | Intellectual and cognitive development | Communication development | Social, emotional and behavioural development | Moral development | 0 – 3 months Baby begins life in reflex mode. Reflex actions such as suckling, rooting enable baby’s survival. | Baby may recognise smell and sound of mother, baby stops crying when it hears a familiar voice.
Describe and Evaluate One Theory of Attachment and Consider its Significance on Child Rearing Today Bowlby (1951) was influenced by ethological studies that suggested infants were "genetically programmed to form attachments to a single caregiver within a critical time period." The critical time period described is called the "sensitive period," it is a period of time in which something is likely to occur. He suggested that "mother love in infancy is as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins are for physical health." Bowlby focused on the mother as the attachment figure. Bowlby argued that attachment was an "evolved mechanism;" an innate response that ensured the survival of the child.
Q: Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Theory. (12 Marks) Bowlby believed we are born with an innate tendency to form attachments. Bowlby believed that to help us attach we have inborn social releasers are our reactions. For example a baby might giggle to show happiness or cry to show sadness. The crying will act as an inborn social releaser as the mother will come to the aid of her child and try to comfort it always.
Bowlby was very much influenced by Lorenz’s (1935) study of imprinting which showed that attachment was innate and therefore has a survival value - during the evolution of humans it would have been the babies who stayed close to their mothers who would have survived to have children of their own. In turn, Bowlbys evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with their main caregiver – usually the mother – in order to survive, this is known as monotropy. According to this babies instinctively seek proximity to their mother figures; hence they display social releaser behaviours, e.g. crying when in contact with a stranger, in order to stimulate care from mother. Forming this attachment provides a safe base, giving babies the confidence to explore, therefore Bowlby suggested that this initial attachment relationship acts as a prototype for all future social relationships so disrupting it during the critical period (first 2 1/2 years) can have severe consequences on the childs development.
A baby of this age will respond to smiles and will move their whole body in response to sound/ to attract attention, he/she sees everything in relation to their self this is know as Egocentric. Another norm at this age is to explore objects by putting them in their mouth, they will also observe objects that move and will respond to bright colours and bold images, he/she will store and recall information through images. Social, emotional and behavioural development at 0 to 3 months. At this age a child will cry to communicate
Unit 201: Child and young person development Worksheet 1: Child development | |Physical development |Communication and intellectual |Social, emotional and behavioural |Assessment criteria | | | |development |development | | |Birth to 3 |A baby holds up it's head, rolls over and starts to |The baby/child recognises its parent's voices, the |The baby can get clingy to their peers, | | |years |shuffle to move along, sitting unsupported, everything|different tones have an impact on how they develop. |feeling safe around people they trust they | | | |is new to them and they will be interested in new |They learn to babble and listen to the way the parent |smile and laugh around familiar people. They | | | |textures and sounds, pulling on toys, picking up small|communicates with them, watching the expression on |may get anxious and cry if they don't | | | |objects, putting anything in to their mouth… toys, |their faces and taking in the different sounds. The |recognise anyone, may get jealous if they are| | | |fingers even toes. Learning to grasp and eventually |baby will learn to speak from its peers, and it is |not getting any attention as they get older, | | | |feeding themselves.
At 3 to 5 months, they will respond when adults talk and can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. Infants form their first relationships as they form an emotional attachment to carers, which leads on to emotional development of an infant. Bowlby (1907-90) argued that infants have an innate need to form and attachment with a carer, and that the quality if this attachment may affect social and emotional development for the rest of the child's life. Bowlby suggested that children who were at an early age, deprived of a relationship with the primary caregiver, were more likely to have behavioural problems later in life. “ Babies who have a strong bond or attachment with their primary carer at the end of their first year will be more comfortable when they socialise with others.” ( Tassoni.