Some federal policies he did not reverse included, continuing the United States repaying its national debt, did not fire most of the federalist officeholders, as long as they did a good job and were loyal, and the Bank of the United States should be kept. After the inauguration of President Jefferson, the congress decided to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801, doing away with Adams “midnight appointments.” This led to a debate over the courts leading to one of the most important judiciary decisions in history. William Marbury, one of Adams “midnight appointment,” filed a writ of mandamus demanding Secretary of State James Madison deliver the appointments. The Supreme Court led by John Marshall denied the request citing part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 as unconstitutional. This court case established the approach of judicial review to declare a law
Hamilton created his Federalist party to help promote his goals for the United States. Jefferson’s opposition party, the Republicans, “opposed Hamilton's urban, financial, industrial goals for the United States, and his promotion of extensive trade and friendly relations with Britain.” Their interpretation of the Constitution also was very different. Hamilton interpreted it very loosely and used the elastic clause to get what he wanted out of it, while Jefferson read and followed if very strictly. This is a reason Jefferson was against Hamilton’s plans. Thomas Jefferson didn’t like the idea of building a National Bank in the United States.
Pitt's financial policies in this period revealed his genius. However, there are numerous other explanation for his success e.g. weak opposition, his character. He was member of Tory political party and a role model, how a great prime minister should look like. After defeat in the American war of independence (1775-1783), Britain was in major financial crisis.
To what extent was Pitts repressive policies the main reason for his success in defeating the radical challenge in 1801? Outside of parliament and of the rich and powerful there were many people who wanted change; the French revolution had a profound and ongoing effect on political, social, and religious life and on the government in Britain. Many people wanted to see the changes that were occurring in France to happen in Britain, as many of the working class people were not happy with there role in society and they wanted reform. Pitt acted quickly against the threat posed by the radicals, the new societies and the publications they produced, this was known as Pitts ‘reign on terror’. Fresh legislation restricting freedom of speech, writing and assembly was passed from 1792 to 1801, to reinforce these new laws the yeomanry were called in to reinforce these new laws.
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were two of the most politically influential men involved in building the new American government. They both agreed on creating a strong government, but disagreed on where the supreme power should be located. Hamilton wanted a strong central government, while Jefferson wanted strong state governments. Alexander Hamilton was a man who represented the Federalists. Some of his contributions consist of The Federalist Papers , the Report on Public Credit , and the creation of the national bank.
In Alexander Hamilton’s written opinion for president George Washington, he said “it is conceded that implied powers are to be considered as delegated equally with express ones”. The Federalist wanted stronger federal power and therefore believed in the loose interpretation of the United States constitution, and the Democratic-Republicans wanted less federal power and therefore believed in a strict interpretation of the constitution. Alexander Hamilton was a federalist, and his economic plan involved the creation of the National Bank, however the Democratic-Republicans believed that the constitution did not give the government the right to do such a thing. This was a difference in views of the two parties, in the matters of how the constitution should be interpreted. Moreover, the Federalist and Democratic-Republicans differed in their views on foreign affairs.
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson where both major players in the development of what is known as our national government today. Even though both men were Founding Fathers in our new nation, they didn’t always see eye to eye on everything. One of those subjects was the issue of a national bank for the United States. Hamilton, being part of the Federalists, believed in a “loose” interpretation of the Constitution. He believed that the Constitution gave the federal government opportunities to do whatever was “necessary and proper” as in a national bank.
While Madison supported a strong central government, he also helped implement what are common separations of power and checks and balances. Originally a Federalist and author of many of the Federalist Papers along with colleagues such as John Jay and Alexander Hamilton, Madison was not only a scholar but a statesman that saw the dangers of a hard, ridged stance for federal government. Madison feared the likelihood of each state in the Confederacy having its own monetary systems and laws. He feared that bankruptcy from one state might seep to the next with a catastrophic result. He held a firm stance against treason and sedition.
The Democratic-Republicans sought to limit federal control and preferred local power as the dominant force. Chiefly, the emergence of the American two-party system arose from strongly opposed political views, but also developed out of experience and a struggle for power. As previously stated, the main reason for the development of the party system in the United States, or any political party for that matter, is a difference in beliefs on how a government should be operated. The Federalists, formed by Alexander Hamilton – Washington’s Treasury Secretary – in 1794, favored federalism with government having the power to control commerce, tax, declare war, and make treaties among other powers.
The Watergate Scandal In the Federalist Papers #51, President James Madison argues that separations of power are necessary because “men are not angels”. This separation between the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches ensures that no one branch becomes too powerful, but with this separation ultimately problems are bound to occur. Over the history of the United States, many conflicts have arisen between the various branches over conflicting interests, with a notable conflict between the legislative and executive branches being the Watergate Scandal. This conflict, which took place during the Richard Nixon administration, resulted in the first resignation of a United States president in history. The Watergate was an American political scandal which occurred when Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, was running for reelection against his democratic rival, George Stanley McGovern.