Discuss Kohlberg’s theory of gender development. Kohlberg’s Gender Consistency Theory basically argues that the development of a consistent gender identity can be seen as part of the child’s more cognitive development. Young children find concepts such as conservation hard but older children do not. Similarly as children get older they understand that there can be different perspectives on a situation to their own. The child responds to the influence of other people but is actively engaged in developing its own concept of its and others genders.
Would you select this toy for a child in this age group? Why or Why Not? Yes! Because the book like I mentioned before can teach the child various different things and help them build skills they might have already mastered. Toy 2: Building Blocks Description: These are building blocks which can teach children many things such as fine motor and gross motor skills.
A child’s development will usually follow the same pattern, but the age at which they will reach ‘milestones’ in their development will vary depending on a variety of personal and external factors. All children will develop at different rates, but the sequence of development will be roughly the same. A child has to master a basic skill before they can move on to the next stage, such as rolling over leading to crawling, then to pulling themselves up onto furniture before they can master walking. Teaching practices aimed at child development should seek to simultaneously address each of the developmental areas. To develop to their fullest potential, children need a huge amount of support and guidance from others in their lives; failure to meet all of the needs of a baby or child can have serious consequences on his or her development.
This can affect planning as practitioners may have to think and plan activities for children where there is a possibility that positive and negative reinforcements can be put into action in the setting, for example; praising the child when they have achieved and giving children time outs think about what they have done ‘Skinner divided the consequences of actions into three groups; Positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers and punishments’ (Tassoni, P, et al, 2007: 84). Albert Bandura’s social learning theory states that he believed children’s; parents, family, friends and teachers should be powerful role models and figures for children to imitate, for example; behaving in a way that promotes acceptable behaviour in the setting. This can affect the planning and provision of learning opportunities for children in a setting as practitioners will have to plan activities and experiences for children that will enable them and will encourage them to socialise and communicate with other children and staff ‘In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational
Promote positive behaviour Communicate to child, positive and realistic expectations of their behaviour Different ages, different stages, different behaviours As a professional in childhood development, you need to be aware of how children at different ages behave in very different ways. You will also need to be aware of the different developmental stages of children within different ages. We will look at how behaviour and development are intricately linked. An understanding of child development allows us to have appropriate expectations of children’s behaviour. For example, in the past it was believed that children should be seen and not heard.
If these skills are not utilised correctly a positive relationship would be impossible to achieve. The principle of relationship building is how you communicate, the way you listen and respond. People are likely to feel comfortable in your company and communicate effectively. In a school situation this is vital for children of all ages. Children need lots of different types of communication consistently on a day to day basis to be able to learn boundaries, social skills and education, for example; Children rely on clear instructions to allow them to understand what is being asked of them, if information is not communicated correctly the child is unable to learn.
Social agents model the appropriate gender specific behaviours; children observe these behaviours and learn the consequences for behaving inappropriately through vicarious reinforcement. Parents or peers may also directly explain to children what behaviour is deemed appropriate or inappropriate; they are also likely to treat boys and girls differently due to their gender. An example of this is that boys and girls are given different toys to play with. Children are also exposed to peers as they grow up, their social circle may expand which means they may learn from other models. Peers are likely to be brought up in the same way which will reinforce the appropriate behaviour through social interactions.
It is important to know the difference between the sequence and the rate of development, as it helps to identify the child’s abilities and needs during these stages. The sequencing of development means it follows the same basic pattern, it usually happens in the same order, the child normally finishes one area of development before going on to the next one, for example a child would walk before they can run. These areas can vary in each child. The rate of development however, is when individuals reach certain milestones and at the speed of which they do so, and the rate is also about recognising and identifying and concerns in development and how you can adapt and assist learning and development. The sequence usually remains relatively the same in each child, but the rate at which many milestones are achieved can vary greatly in different
A: Evaluate the influence of theoretical perspectives on aspects of practice which affect the development of children Both of the two theorists that I had chosen had different theories on how children developed and learned intellectually and emotionally. Jean Piaget’s theory on intellectual development is based on children learning by doing things themselves. He believed that children should learn at their own pace and that the children were coming up with their ideas based on their different experiences through life for example, when children are playing in the home corner, they pretend to be their mom or dad in the kitchen pretending to cook or clean. Piaget also used the term ‘schemas’ to mean a child’s conclusions or thoughts. He believed that the schemas would change pieces of information for children.
It is important to recognise the difference so you can identify where children need help or may be at risk of having SEN. Information and sources we receive are only guidelines. These help us to monitor what children can and cant do at certain stages in their lives, it will also help us to plan effectively to ensure they get the attention they need, in the areas in which they find challenging. Maturation is the genetically programmed series of changes leading to maturity. These changes occur in the same sequence in everybody, but there are great individual differences, for example: - size, weight, height are linked to Ossification which helps you develop your fine motor skills. Cephalocaudal development is the head to toe sequence; babies first have to have neck control before they can sit with support, then on to pulling themselves in to the standing position, then crawl and then to walk, they follow the pattern so this happens if they didn’t then they would not be able to do this.