Italian Nationalism Essay

896 Words4 Pages
Throughout the history of the Catholic Church, a defining episode of the modern Church was the Italian Nationalist Movement. The Italian Nationalist Movement of the 1800’s caused stress in the Church, particularly to Pope Pius IX who was the Holy See at the time. This is because tradition and faith, values important to the Church, were taken over by ideas of national identity and rationality. A long term cause of the Movement was the rise of Nationalism in Europe in the 18th and 19th Century and the Congress of Vienna. A short term cause of the Italian Nationalist Movement was the Prussian victory over France, and the eviction of French troops guarding the Vatican City. Consequences of the Movement were the First Vatican Council and the Lateran Agreement. In the 19th century, the concept of nationalism swept across Europe. Italy was one of the countries formed in this period. Before 1870, Italy was split into different Kingdoms and the Papal States. The Kingdoms were owned by families who had power and the Papal States were owned by the Church. The French Revolution began this rise of Nationalism. When the Napoleonic and the Revolutionary wars finished, there were many unsettling land issues. The Congress of Vienna was used to tackle these issues by restoring old boundaries lost in the wars and to keep all the nations at peace. The outcome of the Congress of Vienna was oppression of nationalistic views of people and political frustration. Liberal wars arose again and independence was being won all around Europe in different nations. In Italy, independence wars began in 1848. Italians from the North rebelled against Austrian powers to become independent; Italians in the South rebelled against their leaders for their nation and Italians in the Papal States rebelled against the Church for Unification. In 1849, Pope Pius was forced to flee the Vatican as Roman
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