Mojtabi and Nicholson (1995) asked 50 senior psychiatrists in the U.S. to differentiate between bizarre and non-bizarre symptoms and found that the inter-rater reliability had a correlation of +0.4. This shows that the central diagnostic requirement lack sufficient inter-rater reliability for it to be a reliable method of schizophrenia diagnoses. Also Whaley et al (2001) found that inter-rater reliability correlations in diagnoses were as low as +0.11. This, again, shows that there are inconsistencies amongst clinicians that are diagnosing patients, which begins to question the confidence we can have in professional diagnosis. Another issue is test-retest reliability.
Theory Critique: Hart Samantha Farmer Liberty University Summary Dr. Hart (1999) explains in his book, The Anxiety Cure, how to cure anxiety disorders naturally and without the use of synthetic tranquilizers. Hart states that about 10% of people have had at least one panic attack and many people have had more than one. This affects more women than men. It also affects those who are considered strong and because of the amount of stress in their lives. Although anxiety attacks are an unwelcome symptom of anxiety, they are also a warning that one is under too much stress and should seek help.
They found that there was a high inter-rater reliability which showed that the diagnosis of phobia is reliable. However they only looked at social phobias and didn’t consider any specific phobias therefore it cannot be generalised meaning that it is low in external validity. Also they only used interviews which means there are issues with self-report data. Social desirability bias could also occur as the participants may act in a certain way to make themselves look better even though it’s not necessarily their true behaviour. The other way of examining reliability is through test re-test, which is
Introducing an ally who resisted the majority caused conformity levels to drop sharply (5%). The presence of an ally makes an individual feel more confident and better able to stand up to the majority. Asch also discovered that people are better able to resist pressure to conform if the decision has a moral dimension. For Asch’s participants, the costs of conforming were not particularly great given the insignificance of the task. However if the behaviour is judged as immoral such as joining others in cheating there is less evidence of conformity as the costs are perceived as greater.
A higher response rate can be obtained if follow-up questionnaires are sent, but this can add to the cost and time. However, some sociologists may choose to use questionnaires as there is no need to recruit and train interviewees thus saving costs. Another reason as to why some sociologists choose not to use questionnaires when conducting research is because of the fact that questionnaires are snapshots of social reality of the time when the respondents answer the questionnaires. This means that they fail to produce valid pictures as they do not capture how people’s attitudes can change over time. On the other hand, questionnaires tend to be used by sociologists as they provide less ethical issues than other research methods.
CBT has many advantages in treating depression, such as helping patients recognize and address negative thoughts. However, there are limitations and CBT is not always accepted as a viable treatment option for some. This paper addresses the goals of CBT in treating depression, the advantages and limitations of CBT for depression and explains how the therapy works to treat depression. Depression and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 1 Depression and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy “Since its introduction in the 1970s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression has become one of the most widely investigated and practiced forms of therapy for depression” (Tang 2005). CBT is a psychological treatment that has been evaluated at length and shown to be effective in most cases of depression.
It is very hard for a psychiatrist to diagnose any disease or syndrome because of this. If a psychiatrist isn’t 100% sure or mistakes a syndrome, the patient can be sent the wrong medicine and may get worse depression. This is why it is a must to label patients with a disorder so they receive the correct medication. Before DSM had been updated, doctors and psychiatrists diagnose a different syndrome/disease to another. An example of this happed in 1972 when an interview with a patient was filmed.
However, token economy has issues, such as that you could argue that you are taking away patient’s basic rights to use as rewards. Another criticism which shows why token economy may not be and appropriate and effective therapy is that it has low ecological validity; it may not transfer into the real world. Once patients are away from institutions, they often discarded desirable behavior as there are no longer any rewards to reinforce it. Another disadvantage is the ethical issues surrounding the use of behavioral therapy. It could be argued it doesn't really help the patient; it just makes their behavior more acceptable to others.
Advantages for the service provider Disadvantages for the service provider A service provider might not tolerate a person, which is different race, gender, religion, etc. This means, that a service provider will be unable to work with person like that. Also, if a service provider tells something wrong to the service user, the service provider might have problems with that, because racism is not acceptable anywhere. The person approach to care Advantages for the service user The advantage may be, that a service user can always use a health and social care services, when they have problem with their health. Disadvantage for the service user It can be that a service user may feel disappointed, because the service provider might not help them as
Mandatory Drug Testing and Treatment of Welfare Recipients Position Statement The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) does not support mandatory drug testing and treatment for people on welfare. Research has shown that drug testing has limited utility in confirming substance use problems and treatment needs. Such an approach would also serve to perpetuate the stigma associated with poverty and addiction and may lead to detrimental individual and social consequences. CAMH is also concerned about the ethical and legal implications of that infringement on the human rights of its patients and clients who are on welfare. Limitations of Drug Testing Drug testing has limited utility in determining an individual's need for treatment.