Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Abstract The goal of this lab was to dehydrate 2-Methylcyclohexanol to obtain a cyclohexene using a concentrated acid. The percent yield for the final product was 69.6% and both saturation tests were positive for the presence of a double bond. The IR spectroscopy produced peaks between 1400 and 1600 cm-1, which suggests the presence of C=C double bonds. Introduction In this lab an alcohol is dehydrated using concentrated phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The acid protonates the hydroxyl group, which creates water, a good leaving group.
Name: Naira Raquel Xilau TA: Elizabeth Hirst Date: 11/12/2012 williamson ether synthesis of nerolin In this experiment, it was performed the williamson ether synthesis of nerolin. Williamson ether reactions are reactions where an alkoxide reacts with a primary haloalkane or a suffonate ester. The reaction occurs through a SN2 mechanism. SN2 reactions “are characterized by the inversion of stereochemistry at the site of the leaving group”. Because the reaction is set in motion by the backside attack of the nucleophile, the nucleophile and the electrophile are in anti-configuration (chemwiki.org).
Abstract: The aim was to react trans, trans-2,4-Hexadiene-1-ol with maleic anhydride. The reaction was a Diels-Alder reaction and it produced cis-1,3,3a,4,5,7a-Hexahydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4-isobenzofuran-carboxylic acid. This reaction gave a percentage yield of 72%. The reaction product was purified and the melting point of both the crude and purified product was found. The purification step reduced the percentage yield to 47%.
Samantha Monette Lab Section E Wednesday 10:00-12:50 p.m. Bromination/Debromination of Cholesterol Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to purify commercial cholesterol. The commercial cholesterol was brominated using bromine as the reagent. After the compound was cooled and vacuum filtrated, dibromocholesterol was obtained. To purify the dibromocholesterol, zinc was added as the reagent. After a series of washes to remove any impurities, the compound was dried and decanted, cholesterol was synthesized.
Liquid-liquid extraction Informal report By: Afi Ahmed 100959296 Presented to: Devien Durbano CHM2203 May 26th 2014 Results and calculations Table 1: Mass of mixture containing benzoic acid, 2-naphthol, and hydroquinone dimethyl ether and recrystallization. Mass of mixture: 3.03g Compound | Original mass | Recrystallized mass | Benzoic Acid | 1.01 | 0.14 | 2-naphtol | 1.01 | 0.43 | Hydro. Dimethyl ether | 1.01 | 0.16 | With these values we are able to calculate the percent recovery for Benzoic acid, 2-napthol and the hydroquinone dimethyl ether. 1) Percent recovery for isolation of benzoic acid % Recovery = mass of recovered material _________________________________ x100% mass of starting material = (0.14/1.01) x100% = 13.86% That concludes that the percent recovery is 13.86%. 2) Percent recovery for isolation of benzoic acid % Recovery = mass of recovered material _________________________________ x100% mass of starting material = (0.43/1.01) x100% = 42.57% That concludes that the percent recovery is 42,57%.
Radu Purtuc | Chemistry 231 - Lab | Section 32 Ronnie :: team-member TECH 705, SEPARATING ACIDS AND NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION - MACROSCALE EXTRACTION July 6, 2006 Lab Report INTRODUCTION Purpose: using extraction technique to separate acetanilide, p-toluic acid, and p-tert-butylphenol; then measure the melting points of each compound and comparing them to the statistical values. Background: separating acids and neutral compounds by solvent extraction is a useful technique used in practice by chemists to separate organic compounds from mixture of other compounds. It generally involve several steps, with limiting factors being the number and output purity of compounds to be extracted from source mixture. A number of specific compound solvents not inter-miscible are used to separate and dissolve compounds, and a physical transfer between solvents is employed. An example of use is cleaning compounds of impurities, where different solvents work as a molecular filter that interacts differentially with compound and impurities respectively.
Robert Paulson Organic Chemistry 1 4/25/2011 Lab Report: Hydrolysis of an Unknown Ester, Parts 1, 2, & 3 Unknown Ester: "C Red" Purpose: The purpose of these three labs consisted of three interdependent goals by which identification of "C Red" and is accompanying reaction, could be achieved. Firstly, A specific carboxylic acid and its accompanying alcohol were synthesized via hydrolysis. Secondly, the carboxylic acid was precipitated and then purified via vacuum filtration. Lastly, verification of the carboxylic acid and the alcohol were performed via melting point range and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Chemical Equation for Unknown "C Red": Procedure and Observations: Week 1: A 100-mL round bottom flask was set-up for heating under reflux with a magnetic stir bar and the following ingredients in the flask: 3.44g NaOH, 4.60 mL distilled water,
This may have been low due to not all of the condensed product being removed from the Hickman still, some product being lost during transfer of the product from the reaction tube into the Hickman still, or the loss of some product due to evaporation during distillation. Infrared spectrum analysis of the product indicated that the product was isopentyl acetate, as expected, and thus that the reaction was successful. Preparing Isopentyl Acetate by the Fischer Esterification Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to synthesize isopentyl acetate via an esterification reaction between acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol, using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The product will be washed, distilled, then characterized using infrared spectroscopy. Materials Used: Paraffin sand bath test tube clamp 50-mL Erlenmeyer flask Hickman still cork Pasteur pipettes with bent ends microspatula Kim-wipes sand bath vial Pasteur pipettes Rubber bulbs Reagents and Properties: Reaction and its Mechanism: Substances Formula Weight g/mol Quantity Moles Used Mole Ratio Melting Point °C Boiling Point °C Density g/mL Acetic Acid 60.05 2 mL 0.0349 1 to 1 118 N/A 1.049
The final crude product yield was 0.91g and the pure product yield was 0.36g. Error may have occurred during the extraction phase. Although I extracted twice with Sodium Chloride, if waste was not completely removed, it would affect the purity of the product. The distillation process may have also affected the pure product. The lab manual recommended that 0.5mL of waste be removed during distillation; otherwise it would affect the purity of the product.
Experiment 2.5 Physical Chemistry Laboratory Spectrophotometric determination of the Dissociation constant of methyl orange Colin O’Neill AS2 08/02/15 Introduction: Methyl orange (IUPAC name: Sodium 4-[(4-dimethylamino)phenyldiazenyl]benzenesulfonate) is a pH indicator used in many titrations and other reactions; it has a sharp end point but not a complete colour change spectrum. When in solution it dissociates into an acid and base, the acidic portion being red and the basic portion being yellow. This is what gives it its indicator properties as under acid conditions it will be in its red form and under basic conditions, its yellow form. Solutions where both forms are present, concentrations can be measured spectrophotometrically. In this lab by making up basic and acid forms of indicator and analysing them spectrophotometrically the dissociation constant could be determined.