In this essay I will discuss and evaluate the different responses of Richard Rubenstein and Abraham Joshua Heschel. I believe that it is possible to believe in an all-powerful and loving God even after the occurrence of the Holocaust. Hitler was elected as president after WWI and he didn’t like Jews and blamed them for all of Germany’s problems (e.g. financial crisis). He started an organised persecution of Jews in Germany which would eventually spread across Europe.
Although terrorism in Palestine was an important factor, saying it was 'the most important' factor is debatable. Zionist terrorist groups intent on the creation of a Jewish homeland such as Irgun and the stern gang played an important role in the creation of an independent state of Israel it was not the most important. Two of the most notable terrorist attacks were the bombing of the king David hotel in 1946 and the hanging of the two British soldiers. In July 1946 the Irgun bombed the king David hotel, killing 91 people including 15 Jews, this attack weakened the morale of the British in Palestine and in Britain, this meant that the public wanted the soldiers to come home and this put pressure on the government to withdraw and led to them handing Palestine over to the UN in 1948. Arguably the role of the UN was the most important factor in the creation of Israel.
All of these strains add up to make a tension filled country with a lot of underlying problems, that were contradictions to what is portrayed. A clear example of tensions within Germany at this time was the strain within the minorities and against them. There was a lot of discrimination towards the minorities whom joined Germany, be it Poles, French, Jews. Tensions were there as discriminations against both the ethnicities and the religions. There was an influx of Jewish people into Germany, therefore the anti-emetic actions grew larger, despite it already being apparent that the Kaiser was anti-Semitic himself, at the end of the19th century there was a wave of anti Semitic publications, the Kaiser is known to have read these books etc.., this causes great tensions, as clearly the population agrees with their Kaiser’s opinion causing anti-Semitism to rise.
The poster created for the exhibit contrasted the Nazi ideal of a people's community with Jewish self seeking individualism. The Secret Police claims that it promoted an increase in Anti-Semitism, and reported some violence against the Jewish Community. The exhibition attracted over 400.000 visitors. These were publicly accepted stereotypes of Jews (BBC - History - Nazi Propaganda). Much like the Jews the Native Americans were and still are to this day, depicted as living in dirt and filth.
Compare/contrast the circumstances of persecution the Hebrews endured in Exodus and Psalm 137 For centuries Israel was caught between Egypt’s and Mesopotamia’s fights for control of its land. During this time, Israel’s poets, priests, and prophets assembled the Hebrew Scriptures, which is also called the Old Testament by Christians and consists of a collection of literature, history, religious and cultural material of the Jewish people. The Bible gives special and similar attention to Israel's fate during the Exodus from Egypt and the Babylonian Exile, but, while the circumstances of these historical periods are different, both, however, have had a profound effect on the on the religion and traditions of the Jewish nation. The Book of Exodus describes the first exile of the Hebrew people when their nomadic tribes were enslaved by the Egyptians between 1500-1300 B.C.E. (p. 127).
It was this point that caused much of the contention and caused his wife to continue her crusade to have her husband freed from life imprisonment on Devil’s Island. One of the main issues of contention is that the press was freed from censorship, which caused the press to exaggerate the initial story. It should also be noted that many of the news publication had anti Semitic feelings and were using the fact that Dreyfus was Jewish to bolster the anti Semitic agenda. Edouard Drumont used his publication La Libre Parole to pressure the army and hasten the trial of Dreyfus . It is clear that the press was using the Dreyfus trial to their advantage by circulating false information to get support and profit from the rapid selling of newspapers.
The ‘November Criminals’ was a term used by the nationalists to describe those who undermined the war effort in 1918 and this term was applied to Communist revolutionaries. Communism was also seen as being Jewish as many leading Communists such as Marx and Trotsky were Jewish and therefore Communism was a Jewish plot to destroy German. Communism was seen as a ‘disease’ and something ‘anti-German’ so after Germany’s surrender many people were angry as they felt they had been betrayed by something foreign. Many of the Nazi leaders were war veterans and were extremely angry and humiliated by Germany’s surrender and blamed it on the Communist leaders and their hatred lead to an anti-communist ideology. A third reason why the Nazis’ ideology was anti-Communist was because the Nazi party wanted to win votes.
It is argued that his first anti-Jewish policies, the boycotting of shops and the law for the restoration of the civil service, were not planned but rather a quick response to growing pressure from below and an attempt to reduce public violence that was damaging Germany’s reputation. This improvisation and need to quickly respond from pressure from below is a theme in the Nazi’s early anti-Jewish policy, being seen again with policies such as the Nuremberg Laws, and led to Nazi policies often being conflicting and confused. This shows that the persecution of Jews was not a planned steady increase but rather a quick response to events and pressures, leading to sudden escalations in anti-Jewish policy. Another reason why I believe that persecution of Jews in the years 1933-1942 did not increase steadily in Germany is that there were significant dips and lulls in Nazi Persecution of the Jews. Although persecution continued at a local level, there were no significant national policies in 1934 and persecution generally fell before the Nuremberg Laws were introduced.
Without the Diaspora the Romans might have crushed the entire Jewish religion by devouring the revolts and their siege of Jerusalem. Now their own country of Israel the Jews have been given their homeland and with the rivaling Babylonians to the east in Mesopotamia they are at risk. In five hundred and eighty seven BC the Jews biggest fears are realized. Under Nebakanezer, Babylon invades Israel and pillaged all the cities and took all the captives they could carry. Those who escaped Nebakanezer are now categorized into the Jewish Diaspora (Diaspora).
The Zionist movement called for the establishment of a nation-state for the Jewish people in Palestine, which would serve as a haven for the Jews of the world and in which they would have the right for self-determination. Zionists increasingly came to hold that this state should be in their historic homeland, which they referred to as the Land of Israel. among the first recorded violent incidents between Arabs and Jews in Palestine was the accidental shooting dead of an Arab man in Safed, during a wedding in December 1882, by a Jewish guard of the newly formed Rosh Pina. In response, about 200 Arabs descended on the Jewish settlement throwing stones and vandalizing property. Zionist ambitions were increasingly identified as a threat by the Arab leaders in Palestine region.