Meta-narrative During the pre-modern era, when civilization first developed, society was centered on God, church, community, and kings. Humanity was essentially centered on traditional values that came from scripture and reason. Alternatively, the modern era moved away from religion and scripture. Instead of God bringing reformation, mankind was. Logic was used to explain events; science replaced religion. Moreover, both science and religion were gone during the post-modern period. God was “dead” and science could not explain reality any longer. In order to restore human nature and religion back to its original purity, Muslims, along with Christians and Jews, believe that God and the messiah need to be restored.
Society was centered either around God, church, community, kings, or duty during the pre-modern era. The church was the model for truth and knowledge. The knowledge of philosophy, law, economics, cosmology, medicine, psychology, and chemistry all came from the church. Humankind at that time could not directly connect with God; the church was the intermediate between the people and God. However, there was a decline in humanity. The Christians, Muslims, and Jews all believe in a messiah. In addition, both the Muslims and Christians believe Jesus is the messiah who will restore humanity.
In Islam, there was a conflict concerning the true meaning of the Quran. Rationalists, such as Ibn Rushd, believed in reason and scripture. They also believed in separation of church and state. The Sufis, who were mystics, believed in a mystic experience and reason. One example of a Sufi is Ghazali. In Islam, there are no intermediates between the people and God. However, Sufi orders or brotherhoods each had Sheikh, who was the master of that order. Followers of that order were not allowed to question the Sheikh and were to act like a “dead corpse.” This idea was very