Henry had little available soldiers in England due to the Wars of the Roses, or the necessary financial resources to fund such a campaign. Instead it seemed more appropriate for him to work on constructing links between his country and other he deemed as good partners for England. An example of one of these links created by Henry was the Medina del Campo, an allegiance with Spain uniting the nations against the possible French threat. The treaty was first negotiated in 1489, with the arranged marriage of Henry’s son, Arthur, and Catherine of Aragon of Spain, cementing the deal. Another example was Henry’s immediate truce with Scotland in 1486, when a three year peace treaty was signed, which was only eventually ended due to the death of James III in 1488 and his successor, the 15 year old James IV, whose anti-Anglo attitude disrupted any potential amnesty between the states until 1497 when the treaty of Ayton was signed.
But you win some and you lose some. One in particular was the war against Spain, differences in religion and conflicts dealing with power and wealth in the new world made this war arise. This war went on for 16 years. Queen Elizabeth eventually died, and James I of England took the throne. In 1603 the war ended, and King James I issued a degree that all acts of piracy must be stopped.
Cleopatra VII was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. Her father was Egypt’s pharaoh, Ptolemy XII. Who Cleopatra’s mother is not known for certain but it is thought to be Ptolemy’s sister, Cleopatra V Tryphanea, as it was very common for members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to marry their siblings. After her eldest sister’s and father’s death, Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII inherited the throne. At the age of about 17, Cleopatra became the queen of Egypt.
Charles’ administration changed in many ways after the election. He became absent in Spain to tend to matters in the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands which forced him to place regents such as Adrian of Utrecht in Spain and his brother Ferdinand in the Holy Roman Empire. Ultimately, this led to the Comuneros Revolt in 1521-22 and a period of social unrest in Spain. The demands of the Comuneros stated that they wanted Charles to change the way in which he ruled Spain and shows the extent of the impact that the election had on Spain. Interestingly, one of the demands is that “no woman can succeed to the throne in this kingdom” .
In addition to this, the idea of mercantilism meant that American trade was protected by Britain, and this was advantageous as Britain was one of the strongest economic powers in the world at the time. These reasons support the statement that the relationship was ‘peaceful and harmonious’ because both parties were substantially benefitting from one another’s trading opportunities. On the other hand, there
He revolutionized the way culture is today. His Code brought revolutionary ideas to Europe. Religious tolerance gave people the right to feel safe when practicing their religion openly. Lastly all males in France were able to gain power and wealth. Napoleon’s cultural effects have left Europe on a revolutionary path, improving life all over the world.
| 61 BC | Caesar was sent to govern a Province in Spain as Propraetor. | 60 BC | Caesar returned from Spain to join Pompey and Crassus in a loose coalition known to us as ‘The First Triumvirate.’ | 59 BC | Caesar was elected Consul against heavy Optimate opposition by Marcus Porcius Cato. Caesar married his only daughter, Julia, to Pompey to seal their alliance. Caesar also married too, this time Calpurnia, the daughter of a leading member of the Popular faction. Caesar pushed Pompey's measures through, helped Crassus' proposals, and got for himself a five-year term as Proconsul of Gaul after his consulship was over.
A unified Spain also was born by 1500. The key event here was the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, which united most of Spain under their joint rule. They used alliances to unite the Kingdom of Spain after 10 years of civil war with nobles who opposed it. They worked to reduce the power of nobles in the court, favored the lesser
Anselm, archbishop of Canterburry, himself performed the marriage ceremony and crowned the new queen. So the claim of any child of the marriage to succeed to the inheritance seemed securely based. Chibnall puts this at the very beginning to show the importance the relation of Matilda to King Henry I. This puts out the idea that Matilda, being the child of King Henry I and Queen Matilda, should be able to ascend to the throne through her lineage. The reader would be presented this at the very beginning of the book to think about as they continued reading.