In AD 620, the Islamic religion was created by the Prophet Muhammad. Then in AD 632 when the Prophet Muhammad died, questions and debate arose on who would take up the mantle of the caliph and lead the faithful. This was the origin of schism between the two branches of Muslims. The two branches of Muslims are the Sunnis and Shi’ites. The Sunni Muslims believed in the voice of the people, where they should be able to vote for their next leader.
Because the Shiite is the minority, they are susceptible to attacks from the Sunni. The whole Sunni-Shiite conflict started right after Muhammad’s death. Muhammad, who was the prophet and leader of Islam died at around 632 A.D. Abu Bakr became his successor as he was Muhammad’s closest companion. He was known as a caliph. Those followers of Abu Bakr (Muhammad’s successor) were known as Sunni.
When India faced its dilemma concerning the conflicts between Muslims and Hindus, its response was to simply cordon off Muslims, separating the two cultures, causing a blow to Indian nationalism. In the same way, the divisions within Islam, mainly between Shi’ites and Sunnis, made it increasingly difficult for both groups to identify with being parts of one whole: Muslims, and citizens of their countries. The founder of the Egyptian People’s Party, Ahmad Lutfi as-Sayyid, wrote that these divisions had “…no reason to exist”, and should, instead, be replaced with, “…a clearly defined sense of fatherland…n ationalism.” (Doc 2). As-Sayyid then goes on to denounce these “ conflicting associations” within Islam, and encourages Muslims to simply think of themselves as citizens of their own countries (in his case, as citizens of Egypt). With such “conflicting associations”, however, Muslim leaders continued to have a difficult time promoting nationalism between their
Despite sharing the same origins, differences between the branches of Islam led them to each become unique and have their own way of life. The original split occurred after the death of Muhammad in the year 632 while the new leader of the Muslim ummah, or Caliph as the title was called, was to be elected. Abu Bakr, closest friend and companion to the Prophet, was eventually elected
was very poorly regarded. On the other hand, during the formation of Islam, the Qur’an in around 620-650 C.E. explains an opposing view on merchants. Unlike the Book of Matthew, it states that if a merchant is honest in his trade, he will rank with the martyrs of faith (Doc. 2).
(The Herald, 2006) In 1989 President Milosevic stripped Kosovo of its autonomy. This extreme political move caused even the moderate Albanians within Kosovo to radicalize their political positions, at the same time the entire Albanian student population was forced out of the educational system and this allowed extremists to indoctrinate the Albanian youth attending private schools. In addition to this, other Yugoslav Republics
How far do you agree that the most important reasons for Arab disunity in the years 1945-79 was the self-interest of individual Arab states? Arab disunity | Other | * Arab Israeli wars:-1948 Egypt and Jordan used the war to gain land-1956 Nasser wanted more power-1967 Syria and Lebanon didn’t join the Arab forces-Camp David Egypt were kicked out-Balance could be that they all had a common cause to help Palestine * Iranian revolution-Iran Iraq war * Palestine (PLO)-desire to create the state of Palestine-Lebanese civil war | * Religious differences-Lebanese civil war-Sunni and Shai Muslims * Islamic fundamentalism-Iranian revolution * Western involvement-Camp David * The creation of Israel | the Arab disunity was caused by different factors between the years 1945-79. The self-interest of individual Arab states caused alot of diunity between the Arabs but it wasn't thw only reason. Religious differences and western involvement also created disunity amonst the Arabs. The self-interest of individual Arab states was a major role in the causing of Arab disunity.
What was the importance of Baghdad in the Abbasid period in the development of Muslim culture? The beginning of the Abbasid period- the revolution The Abbasid was a dynasty of caliphs who ruled the caliphate of Islam from 750 until 1258. The Umayyads who were descended from Umayya and a clan separate from Mohammed’s in the Quraish tribe, were overthrown by a combination of Shiite, Arab and Non-Arab Muslims dissatisfied with the Umayyad regime. The rebels were led by the Abbasid family, descendants of the Prophet Mohammed’s uncle Abbas ibn Abd-Al-Muttalib (566-662) who were the true successor of Mohammed as opposed to the Umayyads and called the “blessed dynasty”. The Abbasid dynasty came to power as the third of the Islamic caliphates through a religiously and politically motivated movement “on the River Zab, south of Mosul in northern Iraq, in February 750”.
Nowadays I don’t know what to believe. I understand now that the idea of a government willingly killing thousands of its people for what seems to be no gain is farfetched. However, I do believe that our government used the events of 9/11 to gain support for a war in Iraq. After the attacks, people rallied around the flag pole and were willing to stand behind anything the president chose to do. Maybe one day hundreds of years from now we’ll know the full
After the shocking events, such as the terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers, the controversial debates on whether Islam plays a major role in foreign policy decision-making broke out. Following works on the topic were not able to reveal the nature of political Islam (Tibi, 2009). The term “politicization of Islam” is controversial and difficult to define. One reason is that the religion of Islam and its teachings differ depending on the region and culture. To be more precise, politicization of Islam means politicization of Islamism, which is an extreme radical wing of Islam.