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PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE WORK CONTEXT
IOP 101-M   (22 JULY 2006)


Figure 1: Systems Model for studying psychological processes in the work context (from IOP 101-M study guide. p. iv)


[pic]


Historical Background

General psychology
    • Wilhelm Wundt (“father of psychology”) – first psychological laboratory founded in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
    • 19th Century - psychology viewed more as a natural science (observation and experimentation)


Industrial psychology
    • Industrial psychology is the study of the behaviour of people in the workplace.
    • Focus on individual differences in the work context and the measurement of such differences.
  Major contributions:
    1. Frederick W Taylor (Taylorism)
        • Man viewed as a rational-economic being
        • Mechanistic approach


    2. WWI (1914-1918) & WWII (1939-1945)
        • Screening and selecting of Army recruits


    3. Hawthorne studies (1924)
        • Humanistic approach
SA Today:
Two bodies that regulate the field of psychology
    • Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA)
    • Professional Board for Psychology under the auspices of the HPCSA
        o Sets requirements for professional training and conduct

Schools of thought:
Different theoretical and methodological propositions / assumptions for studying human behaviour

Structuralism
Theorists
    • Wilhelm Wundt
    • Edward Bradford Titchener
Focus
    • Consciousness
    • Structural elements that underlie direct conscious experience
Methodology
    • Introspection (self-observation)



Functionalism
Theorists & Focus
    • Functioning of the psyche (mind)
    • Charles Darwin
        o Individual differences through natural selection
        o Adaptation to environment
    • Sir Francis Galton
        o Role of genetics
Methodology
    • Animal experiments to understand human behaviour
    • Used tests and questionnaires to ascertain the...

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  • Submitted by: CeciliaEngel
  • on February 4, 2014
  • Category: Business and Economics
  • Length: 13,730 words
  • Views: 210
  • Popularity Rank: 386306
  • 1 rating(s)

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