PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE WORK CONTEXT
IOP 101-M (22 JULY 2006)
Figure 1: Systems Model for studying psychological processes in the work context (from IOP 101-M study guide. p. iv)
• Wilhelm Wundt (“father of psychology”) – first psychological laboratory founded in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
• 19th Century - psychology viewed more as a natural science (observation and experimentation)
• Industrial psychology is the study of the behaviour of people in the workplace.
• Focus on individual differences in the work context and the measurement of such differences.
1. Frederick W Taylor (Taylorism)
• Man viewed as a rational-economic being
• Mechanistic approach
2. WWI (1914-1918) & WWII (1939-1945)
• Screening and selecting of Army recruits
3. Hawthorne studies (1924)
• Humanistic approach
Two bodies that regulate the field of psychology
• Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA)
• Professional Board for Psychology under the auspices of the HPCSA
o Sets requirements for professional training and conduct
Schools of thought:
Different theoretical and methodological propositions / assumptions for studying human behaviour
• Wilhelm Wundt
• Edward Bradford Titchener
• Structural elements that underlie direct conscious experience
• Introspection (self-observation)
Theorists & Focus
• Functioning of the psyche (mind)
• Charles Darwin
o Individual differences through natural selection
o Adaptation to environment
• Sir Francis Galton
o Role of genetics
• Animal experiments to understand human behaviour
• Used tests and questionnaires to ascertain the...