Iop1501 Essay

13730 WordsFeb 4, 201455 Pages
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE WORK CONTEXT IOP 101-M (22 JULY 2006) Figure 1: Systems Model for studying psychological processes in the work context (from IOP 101-M study guide. p. iv) [pic] Historical Background General psychology • Wilhelm Wundt (“father of psychology”) – first psychological laboratory founded in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. • 19th Century - psychology viewed more as a natural science (observation and experimentation) Industrial psychology • Industrial psychology is the study of the behaviour of people in the workplace. • Focus on individual differences in the work context and the measurement of such differences. Major contributions: 1. Frederick W Taylor (Taylorism) • Man viewed as a rational-economic being • Mechanistic approach 2. WWI (1914-1918) & WWII (1939-1945) • Screening and selecting of Army recruits 3. Hawthorne studies (1924) • Humanistic approach SA Today: Two bodies that regulate the field of psychology • Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA) • Professional Board for Psychology under the auspices of the HPCSA o Sets requirements for professional training and conduct Schools of thought: Different theoretical and methodological propositions / assumptions for studying human behaviour Structuralism Theorists • Wilhelm Wundt • Edward Bradford Titchener Focus • Consciousness • Structural elements that underlie direct conscious experience Methodology • Introspection (self-observation) Functionalism Theorists & Focus • Functioning of the psyche (mind) • Charles Darwin o Individual differences through natural selection o Adaptation to environment • Sir Francis Galton o Role of genetics Methodology • Animal

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