Introduction Essay

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Chapter Overview Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, students should be able to answer the following questions: 1) Why is psychology a science, and how can it be distinguished from pseudoscience and folk wisdom? 2) How does the biological perspective explain thoughts, feelings, and behavior? 3) How does the learning perspective approach understanding behavior? 4) What does the cognitive perspective in psychology emphasize? 5) What does the sociocultural perspective in psychology focus on? 6) How does the psychodynamic perspective explain thoughts and behavior? 7) What are the main differences between basic and applied psychology? 8) How do psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists differ from one another in their training, background, and approach to treatment? 9) What are the eight critical thinking guidelines that help in understanding psychological issues? 10) What are the defining elements of descriptive research? Can you give an example of a case study, observational research, a psychological test, and a survey? 11) What do positive and negative correlations look like, and what do they signify? 12) What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable? What is the difference between an experimental group and a control group? 13) What is the difference between a single-blind experiment and a double-blind experiment? 14) How would a psychological scientist use descriptive statistics versus inferential statistics? 15) What are the differences between a cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study, and a meta-analysis? Chapter Outline I. THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY A. Psychology, pseudoscience, and common sense 1. Psychology is based on rigorous research 2. Its claims are testable 3. “Common sense” is sometimes wrong B. The birth of modern

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