It can be found in many products such as toothpaste, heavy-duty dish cleanser, hand and face wash, fire extinguisher, household cleanser, deodorizer, for cooking, and for acid indigestion. Recently, the Athenium Baking Soda Company began producing baking soda. It chose from one of several methods of producing baking soda; the method of reacting crystalline ammonium hydrogen carbonate NH4HCO3 with brine. NH4HCO3(s) + NaCl(aq) ( NaHCO3(aq) + NH4Cl(aq) (Eq. 1) Brine is salt water composed of potassium chloride, sodium chloride, lithium chloride, and calcium chloride.
1) In addition to sodium chloride, brine often contains potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and calcium chloride (i.e., KCl, LiCl, and CaCl2, respectively). Consequently, these compounds may be present in (and thus contaminate) the desired solid product – i.e., baking soda (NaHCO3) – when it is dried and filtered. In order to determine the composition and purity of the baking soda produced by ABSC, Team AMEE will utilize the following experimental techniques. First, using thermal gravimetric analysis, Team AMEE will determine the percent by mass of sodium bicarbonate in a
Chemistry 11 | The Decomposition Reaction of Baking Soda, NaHCO3 | Oscar ShiPeriod 2Laboratory AssignmentDue Date: 2011/4/14 | Introduction The objective of this experiment is to find the actual chemical equation that governs the manner in which baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate NaHCO3) decomposes. When NaHCO3 is heated, it decomposes to produce a gas and leaves behind a solid. Two possible equations for the decomposition are: NaHCO3 (s) + heat NaOH (s) + CO2 (g) NaHCO3 (s) + heat ½ Na2OH3 (s) + ½ H2O (g) + ½ CO2 (g) Materials and Methods * electronic balance * sodium hydrogen carbonate * ring * ring stand * crucible tongs * crucible * crucible lid * clay triangles The Procedure of the Laboratory 1. Put on safety goggles and a lab apron. 2.
In school, you probably tried an experiment where you mixed baking soda with vinegar to see it foam. That's what is happening in baking powder. If you look at the ingredients for Alka-Seltzer, you will find that it contains citric acid and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). When you drop the tablet in water, the acid and the baking soda react -- this produces the fizz. You can think of an Alka-Seltzer tablet as compressed baking powder with a little aspirin mixed in.
There are several options in which quality control can be insured; however our group has elected to utilize emissions analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, and a titration to determine the purity of NaHCO3 and what impurities, if any, exist. Emissions analysis will measure the energy and wavelength of each ion in solution, and provide test results for group IA and IIA metal salts within solution; this is an effective solution because we will be able to test for contamination in the baking soda due to the use of the brine solution used during manufacturing of baking soda. In addition, thermal gravimetric analysis will be utilized to determine the purity of the given baking soda sample. Thermal gravimetric analysis will allow our group to determine the percent by mass of a component in a mixture, when the mixture is heated some of the components will decompose to form a gaseous compound and the others will not decompose. The mass of the component that decomposes is
Experiment 9 – Decomposition of Baking Soda Introduction The decomposition of any metal hydrogen carbonate will result in the formation of that metal carbonate, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. This lab will investigate the decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3, commonly called baking soda. It is governed by the following chemical equation: 2 NaHCO3sNa2CO3s+ H2O g+ CO2 (g) In this lab, the NaHCO3 will be decomposed to form Na2CO3. The first half of the experiment will use a pure sample of NaHCO3, and the second part will use a mixture containing only some NaHCO3. Depending on how well the first half of the experiment is performed, the percent yield of this reaction should be 100%.
Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Water NaOH(aq) + HClaq → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Variables Independent The independent variable of the experiment was the amount of sodium hydroxide that we added to the acid. To keep the variable controlled we would measure 1 ml of the sodium hydroxide and pouring that to the hydrochloric acid. Dependent The dependent variables of the experiment were the temperature and the pH number of the mixture. To control the pH and temperature use the electronic probe and data logger. Controlled The controlled variables of the experiment were: A.
The results were Acetone which boiled at 56 degrees and Toluene which boiled at 111 degrees. Introduction/background Distillation is a very know method used to separate liquids based of their characteristics and properties. In order to separate mixtures, heat is applied to the liquids, which have different boiling points, to force them into a gas phase. After, the gas is collected and converted back into a liquid phase; doing this process over multiple times help increases the purity of the product. Or vice-versa the process can be used to convert gases into liquids by changing the pressure or temperatures.
Introduction In Project 2, the goal of the experiment was to test for the active acidic or basic ingredients in a commercial product. By using standardized solutions of HCl and NaOH to perform a titration of the chosen commercial product, which was Vitamin C tablets and lime juice, the ascorbic acid content could be taken and compared to the manufactures standards. The information that was gained in this experiment can be compared to the manufacture’s stated amount of Vitamin C and lime juice in the nutrition facts, and our rests would either refute their measurements or prove them to be truthful. If our tests concluded that the sample of their product was so far off that it exceeds a 20% error, it will be out of the FDA standards of acceptable error and in turn be considered defective. Methods My group used the method of titration to test whether the Vitamin C and lime juice nutritional facts where correct from their manufacture.
1. An experimental section for the soda ash lab. See the example results section from the chemical equilibrium experiment and the details of a results section on page xi of your lab manual. The sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) content in soda ash was determined by performing three titrations. About 125 mL of standard HCl with a molarity of 0.3125 and was poured into a buret.