Valence Bond Theory: An important aspect of the VB theory is the condition of maximum overlap which leads to the formation of the strongest possible bonds. This theory is used to explain the covalent bond formation in many molecules. In the case of the F2 molecule the F - F bond is formed by the overlap of pz orbitals of the two F atoms, each containing an unpaired electron. Since the natures of the overlapping orbitals are different in H2 and F2 molecules, the bond strength and bond lengths differ between H2 and F2 molecules. In an HF molecule the covalent bond is formed by the overlap of the 1s orbital of H and the 2pz orbital of F, each containing an unpaired electron.
The Effect of Lone Electron Pairs on the Shapes of Molecules Enjam Hossain E&F Band Abstract The aim of the experiment was to see the effect of the lone electron pairs on the shape of the molecules. We were observing the molecules, if it took up less space than an atom would, take up more space than an atom would, or if it will be as if there is nothing but empty space in that position. I hypothesized that the lone pairs of the molecule will take up more space than an atom would. The method we used was to draw Lewis Electron-dot diagrams for the molecules given. I predicted the name of the shape of each molecule, whether it was Linear, Bent, Pyramidal, or Tetrahedral.
Given that silica is an absorbent, TLC is a “form of adsorption chromatography” (Varcoe 2001: 8-1). The silica gel used in the stationary phase is a highly polar compound capable of hydrogen bonding whereas in the mobile phase the solvent is a less polar compound, specifically ethyl acetate. | | Figure 1. Structure of silica gel particle (Varcoe 2001: 8-1) | Figure 2. Structure of Ethyl Acetate (Toxipedia 2010) | The polar interactions between the solutions and both of the absorbent and the solvent can occur as a dipole-dipole interaction, the result of the contact of two polar molecules with permanent dipoles such as hydrogen bonding and also dipole-induced dipole interaction in which a molecule with a permanent dipole polarizes another molecule.
Those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n (assuming non-cyclic structures).  Those containing triple bonds are called alkynes, with general formula CnH2n-2.  3. Cycloalkanes are hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached.
On top of this, the helium nucleus is clearly labeled and is shown containing two neutrons and two protons (which are also labeled using an “N” and a “+”). Similarly, my model of beta decay is labeled in the same manner as that of the alpha decay model. In beta decay, an unstable atom uses its natural tendency to become stable to “transform” one neutron into a proton. Subsequently, the new positive charge requires an electron to be released from the atom’s orbit. This process is shown clearly in my model due to the fact that it states that the atom gets the energy to carry out this process from the instability of itself.
The base of organic compounds is the element Carbon. It can form varying amounts of organic compounds so well because it possess the ability to form strong covalent bonds with itself. Covalent bonds are shared between two non-metals where an electron pair or pairs occupy the space between the nuclei of both atoms. The negatively charged electrons are electrostatically attracted to the positive charges of both nuclei and overcomes the repulsion of both positibely charged nuclei. This bond holds the two atoms together.
The physical properties of the boiling point of a molecule are directly related to the forces between the molecules. These are referred to as intermolecular forces. There are four main types of intermolecular forces that are between each molecule. Ionic bonds are the forces holding ions together in ionic bonds. This is where opposite charges are attracted to each other and are held in a crystalline lattice structure.
When two different atoms are bonded together, each attracts the electrons differently like a tug-of-war between two unequal teams, producing a dipole. The positive part of one molecule is then attracted to the negative part of another molecule. The shape of a molecule also contributes to the formation of a dipole. Molecules containing three or more atoms may be linear in shape or bent. Depending on how symmetrical or how bent the molecule is, the formation of a dipole in molecules will differ.
1.3 Organosilane  Monomeric silicon chemicals are known as silanes and any chemical that contains at least one carbon-silicon bond is known as an organosilane. Generally, organosilanes contain three key elements beside silicon; X represents for an organic moiety that is non-hydrolysable which can be either reactive or non-reactive depending on its type. OR\ is a hydrolysable group such as alkoxy or an acetoxy is known to be unstable when present with hydroxyl groups. Finally, R is a space moiety, which can be aryl or alkyl chain. Typically, due to the dual reactivity of organosilane, both alkoxy group (OR\) and non-hydrolysable organic moiety (X), it is used to couple inorganic or organic substrates such as minerals, metals or cellulose and polymeric matrices such as rubber, thermoplastic or thermosets to improve its physical properties.
Chemistry I-1 October 27, 2012 Chemistry 1: Bonding Lab Atoms are the essential ingredients in all types of matter. They depend on other atoms to link through chemical bonds from strong attractive forces that exist between the atoms. Being introduced to this lab allowed me to get a better understanding of what a chemical bond is and the various interactions that occur within atoms. The electrons that are in chemical bonds are valence electrons that occur in an atom’s outermost shell. When the two atoms come together they interact and can also repel, but become attracted to the protons inside the atoms.