Intelligence Theories Essay

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Introduction Intelligence has been a major, colossal and controversial issue for psychologists that have kept them pondering for the past so many decades. Intelligence represents a focal point for psychologists engrossed with understanding how people are able to adapt their behavior to the environment and how individuals differ from one another. The study of intelligence offers many areas of debate that create towering challenges of the psychologists. This report tries to provide a critical look at some of the approaches involved in defining and measuring intelligence. This report tries to examine some of the well acknowledged conceptions of intelligence as well as efforts to develop and use standardized tests as a means of measuring intelligence. What is Intelligence? The term intelligence can take many different meanings. Because intelligence is assessed by members of the society its conceptualization can take many forms according to when, where and how the assessment occurs. For example, for a person living in the jungle, successfully mastering hunting skills will demonstrate intelligence whereas to someone living in urban New York, intelligence can be exemplified by being cunning or achieving success in business. This shows that two very different sets of behavior can exemplify the same psychological concept. And this has long posed a challenge to psychologists with the issue of coming up with a proper definition. Definition To most psychologists, intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. The Approaches Underlying the Intelligence Theories Researchers are always pondering about what intelligence actually is and its ways of measurement. Today's theories about intelligence are based on four primary approaches: * Psychometric theories try to answer

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