Intelligence Paper

391 Words2 Pages
In the textbook, Kowalski and Western (2009) define Intelligence as the “application of cognitive skills and knowledge to learn, solve problems, and obtain ends that are valued by an individual or culture” (p. 264). There are many different tests designed to measure one’s intelligence. This paper will explore Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Furthermore, this paper will discuss how intrapersonal, interpersonal, and visual spatial intelligences can impact one’s personal success. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory revolutionized the way people defined intelligence. The introduction of the Multiple Intelligence Theory caused a major paradigm shift in educational principles and practices (Helding, 2009). Gardner challenged people to ask “How are you smart?” instead of “How smart are you?” (Kowalski & Western, 2009, p. 279). Gardner believes intelligence is “an ability or set of abilities that is used to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting” (Walters & Gardner, 1986, p. 165). Gardner received some criticism for using the term intelligence instead or the word talent. In his book Intelligence Reframed, Gardner (1999) makes clear his definition of intelligence when he states “an intelligence is a biopsychological potential that is ours by virtue of our species membership” (p. 82). The Theory of Multiple intelligence recognizes eight different intelligences. They are as follows: Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Naturalist, Visual-Spatial, Body-Kinesthetic, and Musical. Gardner believes that every individual posses these intelligences in varying amounts. Linguistic Intelligence is defined as being “word smart” (Kowalski & Western, 2009, p. 279). Individuals who are highly gifted in this particular intelligence communicate effectively and are often

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