That is to say, being smart is not equal to having and using only one type of intelligence, but having all types of intelligences which include practical, social and emotional intelligences as well as using them effectively. On the other hand, the definition of human intelligence may not be a simple one as it cannot be confined to one’s responses to numerical and verbal tasks in IQ tests. Human intelligence is beyond IQ tests as Phil Yam points out. Human intelligence is the combination of various skills and abilities that would work even in real-life conditions. People’s life success and practical knowledge are also determining factors while measuring their intelligence because they need to possess survival skills when they encounter stressful and challenging situations.
It has been found that peer tutoring is often best when the tutor is only slightly older than the student, as the material will be fresher in the tutors mind and the student will not feel so intimidated by their tutor. However, there are cultural differences, tutoring styles vary. In each of these strategies children or older learners provide scaffolding to one another and helps them through ZPD. Durkin stated scaffolding is better for some tasks such as practical compared to academic. Solomon suggested that too much
However, materials used were more familiar to males than females and therefore the role of confidence may have had an effect on the conformity levels of females. Another issue is that there are cultural differences. People from collectivist
People with good structured principles have a better capacity to view situations in a more broader sense. These people views are usually base on logic instead of ill-rational thinking. I believe my parents or role models taught me reasonable ethics. I learn many valuable thinking, but the best is think for myself and make my own chooses without any negative influences. Knowledge also plays an important role in a person's world view.
2. During problem solving, do you use primarily algorithms or heuristics? What are the advantages of each? Algorithms are better applied to quantitative problems that are best solved by formulas, such as math and some science problems. A heuristic approach is suited to solving problems that are broader and interpersonal.
Certain cultures value education and success on a whole other level than others and it’s not that each ethnicity is better or worse, it’s the simple fact they were raised on and brought up around different values and expectations in their own culture. Creating again another subconscious segregation issue mentally within certain ethnicities resulting in a mentality that race superiority is okay and acceptable, when in all actuality, may give a little truth to how demographics influence a major part in the education of an individual, which after contributing to this mentality creates a domino like effect on the people who may not have been as fortunate as them but worked just as hard if not harder to get to the same spot. For a country who is typically associated with an image that represents harmony when looking at America itself we haven’t shown much of that over the years, and dissecting each battle America has with racial superiority in each region of the U.S. is proof to exactly why this myth is one to begin with, in all
There also seem to be qualitative shifts in the mental models needed by learners to understand more complex systems, for example, in such domains as electricity (Frederiksen & White, in press). Learning is thus seen as a progression across a range of simpler to more complex mental models of a domain, as well as a progression in conceptual understanding. Learners obviously also come with previously developed abilities and skills that may be capitalized upon as tools for learning in new domains. On the other hand, there may be deficiencies in the tool skills assumed by instruction at a given level. Prerequisite skills of reading and mathematics are obvious examples.
It is important to note that if children feel that they are being manipulated or controlled by the rewards, their behavior will likely not change effectively. Indeed, as explained by the over-justification effect, punishments and rewards are not effective if children only behave well in order to get a reward or avoid a punishment. Rather than using rewards and punishments, a more effective method is to use authentic activities; activities that are similar to situations students are likely to experience in the real world. The book suggests that if educators used more authentic activities, students would be more likely to create a productive knowledge base and use that knowledge later on in their
Also if the children are with different adults at different times then the children would not maintain stability which then in turn would disable practice of the positive reinforced behaviour. The behaviourist, Skinner, argued that reinforcement was more effective than punishment in education. For example the child minder rewarding the child provides information on desirable behaviour, increases motivation to perform rather than other behaviour and are associated with pleasant emotions. Reinforcement is a very flexible form of behaviour control selective reinforcement can shape many different types of behaviour and reinforcement schedules mean reward do have to be given to desirable
The traditional system supporters say that learning consists of regular routine and “tough study”. Even if the final output of work or training is not understood, the guidelines must still be followed. The overall learning at the end will be useful irrespective of the student’s interaction or knowledge of objective – it is helpful if the learning was done with delight rather than being oppressed to the student. Many people are going against tradition as they say that a student must know the goal and objective in order to understand in a better way. The counter argument is that a student will learn as per his or her own understanding and a few concepts may be missed.