It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment. Human beings have a keen sense to adapt to their surroundings and this is what child development encompasses. Each child usually develops at the same rate as another child. |Age |Intellectual |Social / Emotional |Language |Gross motor |Fine Motor | |Infant – Birth to |Learns about things with |Attaches to mother and |Vocalises, squeals |Lifts head first then |Reaches for objects| |one year |hands and mouth |father, begins to |and imitates sounds, |chest, rolls over, pulls|and picks up small | | |
The senses of a child are very sensitive. “Newborns have open eyes, sensitive ears, and responsive noses, tongues and skin” (Berger, 2007 p.136). Infants use their senses to sort and classify their many experiences. Freud focused on the oral stage. Oral fixation theory is known to stimulate the need for a child to suck, eat, drink, chew, bite or ramble excessively.
Infants in biologically organize their attachment behaviors around the availability of their caregivers. When infants find caregivers to be available in times of need, they tend to develop expectations that caregivers will be there in the future of times needed in the future. Behaviorally, these infants then seek out the comfort they need (Sroufe, 1989) from caregivers with confident expectations that they will be soothed. Such infants are categorized as having secure attachments to caregivers. When caregivers are not responsive to infants’ needs or there are many different caregivers in an infants’ life, infants can develop an insecurity to bond because they cannot identify who the main caregiver is supposed
There muscle development starts from head to toe, a child will first develop the control over there neck muscles. Intellectual: babies are born ready to communication and interact with other individuals especially there mother and father. From a very young age a baby will start to communication in a language, for example they will express their feelings and needs through gestures. emotional: babies are usually born with some of their emotions, during the first year of their life it is good to give a baby love, warmth and care to help them to gain the sense of being safe and also welcoming. The sense of being safe is a good base for the development of other healthy emotional responses.
It is usually very rapid early on in the child’s development. Within weeks of being born a baby will start to smile and respond to sounds and environments around them. By 6 months as their muscles begin to develop they will reach for and hold objects which they will also put into their mouths. 0 – 3 Years Physical development at this stage is usually very rapid. At birth babies depend on reflexes for movements to enable them feed or grasp whenever they touch something.
The baby will begin to coo and gurgle in response to interaction from carer. Bt three months the baby will recognise and link familiar sounds such as the face and voice of a carer, will try to have a conversation with the carer and imitate high and low sounds, will aslo return and give smiles. | Smiles from about 5 weeks, begins to respond to familiar sounds, engaged by peoples faces and by three months starts to discover what she/he can do and this creates a sense of self. If the primary carer leaves the room baby may cry not yet understanding that person exists and will come back. Shows feelings such as excitement and fear, reacts positively to a carer who is kind and southing if a carer does not respond to a baby, the baby may stop trying to interact.
Infant’s social development needs are met by new people throughout the family, this way they build bonds and relationships with close relatives. Where as a toddler is able to interact with other children their own age and they do this mostly when starting school. Some children and babies are unable to develop at the pace they should be because of other needs that need to be met such as having physical problems like e.g. disability, sensory impairment etc. Intellectual needs for infants are met by their carer playing with them which helps with their learning, but most intellectual
Another strand of development that occurs in infancy is emotional development. Babies learn to cry to communicate pain, fear, discomfort and loneliness (Saskatchewan). They love to be touched and held and form a close emotional bond with their carer. They begin to respond differently to family members and strangers. Emotional development is vital in helping an infant learn to trust and will lead to more emotional stability when they are older.
A number of the children may be facing issues involving their emotions and behavior since they are victims of ill-treatment. Josie also talks about the children’s progress with their caregivers. They also discuss ways of helping the children. It may also be necessary for Josie to make a court appearance to discuss the best interests of the children or to attend a custody hearing. She would also set up
This includes the child feeling distress. The first stage would be seeking proximity. This is when the people who have an attachment want to be near each other and spend time together. The baby would maintain proximity by watching them carefully and howling when they go further away. The next stage then starts to get more intense as the child gets distress on the separation of the mother.