The findings appear to determine no new findings, they are simply correlational. The behaviours may not have been imported as a coping mechanism, but simply because that is the way these people behave wherever they are. This research is also difficult to generalise as it concerns only males in US prisons. This leads into a criticism of the research for gender bias. The theory may however be applicable in other environments where an individual is new to it.
Irwin and Cressey, put forward the Importation models. IT claims that aggression is brought into the institution, because of the characteristics of the individuals. These aggressive and violent traits are imported in to the institution, and this is why it is it is evident rather than the environment. The model is supported by research by Kane and Janus; they found that inmates who had greater periods of unemployment, lower levels of education and a more serious criminal record were more likely to be aggressive in prison. This supports the importation model, as it shows that the aggressive individuals imported these characteristic into the institution due to their background there more likely to be aggressive.
Values and attitudes) with them, which influence their adaptation to the prison environment. They believe that interpersonal violence that occurs within a prison isn’t because of the institute itself; however, it’s the individuals’ characteristics. For example, younger inmates have a harder time adapting to the prison and have more confrontation with other inmates. They believe that violence is a good way of resolving conflict. As well as this, Black inmates have also been associated with interpersonal violence more than white inmates have.
• 2nd piece of evidence was that there were no evidence to a spurge or crime rate. Two criminologists, at the end of the decade reviewed the available crime statistics, and what they could conclude was there was no crime wave but a small increase. There are four primary sources of crimes committed with transporting alcohol during prohibition. These primary sources were written in newspaper articles or court case files and testimonies taken during trial. The argument is against those who committed theses crimes, they knew what they were doing was wrong and instead they continued to break the law.
Sykes argues that institutional aggression is a result of the environment, and that it is occurs within prison institutions because they experience deprivation on a daily basis. These include deprivation of liberty, where the prisoners are deprived of their freedom, deprivation of autonomy, where the prisoners are deprived of their independence by constantly being controlled by officers and loss of security, where many of the prisoners feel insecure of themselves. This is then supported by Sykes who found that the potential threat to personal security increased the anxiety levels in inmates, even if the majority of prisoners were not a threat to them. However, inmates may cope with these struggles in a number of ways, including some prisoners isolating themselves in their cells, whereas others choose to rebel by being violent towards staff. A study supporting the deprivation model was carried out by McCorkle et al who found that overcrowding, lack of privacy and lack of meaningful activities leads to peer violence which shows that the environment and place, could be a significant factor influencing aggression within prisoners.
That's compared to only 40,000 in mental hospitals." Prisons were never designed as facilities for the mentally ill, yet that's one of the roles it plays. Prisoners have rates of mental illness-including such serious disorders as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression-that are two to four times higher than members of the general public. There were designed mental institutions/hospitals for mentally ill people, but due to poor economic conditions, a lot of hospitals were shut down or overcrowded and people who were caught by the police committing crime because of their illness were sent to prisons instead of mental hospitals. And prisons don't have the right resources for treatment of all these diseases.
However, this has had more disadvantages than advantages, the main advantage being the induced fear in people of committing a crime with the thought that they will be caught and it won't be pretty afterwards. Disadvantages of new prisons however are a little more complex, because each has a purpose, a conflict, and a possible resolution. A good reference article about these kinds of prison, including life inside a prison, is detailed in the article of "Why Prisons Don't Work", by Wilbert Rideau. Rideau takes an admiring step into describing their problem and its relation into life and social perspective. Let’s take for instance the first situation he presents.
Twenty-one states in this country have mandatory arrest laws (Barton & Diedrich, 2012), but there is no one to enforce them, and if laws are ignored, there are no penalties. In Wisconsin, every law enforcement agency is required to have a written policy that spells out how they respond to domestic violence calls, but local departments are not required to submit their policies to any state agency for review, and it is not known how many departments have actually written one (Barton & Diedrich, 2012). Mark Wynn, a retired Nashville Police Department lieutenant and a domestic violence expert, argues, “It may have a great policy, but somewhere along the chain it is not being followed. You may have two policies, a written and an unofficial policy of practice, and that is a problem. That is a failure of leadership.
Whereas on the other hand the Conflict Model of the contemporary criminal justice system refers to a model of crime where the criminal justice system is seen to be used by the ruling class to control the lower class. It argues that the organizations of the criminal justice system should work competitively to produce justice instead of cooperatively. It argues things like worries over fame promotion and other things like wages cause the criminal justice system to conflict its self. One example from within the system is between Police and prison officials. Police desire to put criminals into prison whereas prison officials are concerned about overcrowding facilities may desire to release criminals from prison 2.
The government did not hire the necessary amount of agents needed to scour such a vast area. Gangsters were able to bribe agents, thus making even those federal agents responsible for carrying out the law corrupt. Proving, once again, that money talks. (5) During this time, officers made several arrests sometimes even by the dozens. Prisons were at capacity with prisoners arrested for alcohol related crimes.