It states that inmates, who enter prison with certain characteristics such as abnormal values, bad attitudes and a violent/aggressive personality, are more like to contribute in interpersonal violence than other inmates. According to this theory, the brutality portrayed in prisons is not due to the prison itself, but stems from the attributes of those who enter such institutions. A lot of the behaviour
The theory of the structure helped understand the subjective experience of punishment beyond just the aspects of incarceration. Severity and salience did not focus on describing the types of prisoners, but rather the different ways prisoners situated punishment in what their real life had become inside the prison. However, prisoners experienced more than one narrative, shifting from time to time. The narratives included: punishment as part of life, punishment as a separate life, punishment in many ways, punishment as suspension of life, and punishment as death. When the narrative was punishment as part of life, it involved both low in both salience and severity.
Outline and evaluate research into institutional aggression (24 marks) A01 Institutional aggression refers to the violent behaviour that exists within a certain institution or group. It can refer to other sorts of collective violence between social groups, such as riots and intergroup conflicts. Institutions can be distinct entities, it can be schools, prisons or larger bodies such as the armed forces or police, and it could even represent a whole society. Institutional aggression can range from physical acts of violence, initiation rituals or even acts to destroy a national, racial or religious group (Rwandan Genocide) * Importation model (Irwin and Cressey 1962) – claims inmates who enter the prison with particular characteristics (Values, attitudes or experiences) are more likely to engage in interpersonal violence than other inmates. * According to this theory, interpersonal violence is not a product of the institution itself, but rather the characteristics of the individuals in the institution * Younger rather than older individuals are said to have a more difficult time adjusting in prisons and therefore are more likely to clash with other inmates – Adams 1981 * Research shown that black inmates when compared to white, are more likely to be associated with interpersonal violence – explanation is that black prisons enter the prisons from more impoverished communities with higher rates of violent crime – thus, import the violence due to cultural norms.
* However, the relationship may not be causal as there may be intervening variables such as socioeconomic status or ethnicity. * The deprivation model suggests that aggression in prisons and other institutions is the product of the stressful and oppressive conditions of the institution itself. * There is a substantial amount of research evidence to support this model. * For example, McCorkle et
To do this they exercise disciplinary power in a concentrated and pure form. Goffman (1957) suggested that prisons act to preserve social isolation and to classify prisoners as abnormal through social segregation. Even though Foucoult and Goffman do emphasise different intentions of imprisonment they do agree that prisoners are socially isolated with no independence and are given a forced structure of living. Jewkes & Johnston (2006) stated that imprisonment is painful due to the frustrations and deprivations that prisoners have to experience and suggests that it is imperative for us to recognise them. Goffman (2009) stated that an inmate’s moral career is a personal process that an inmate goes through in prison, relating to how they think about themselves and significant others.
Correctional nursing Name Institution Correctional nursing is the provision of nursing services to clients in correctional facilities (Hitchcock, Schubert & Thomas, 2003). Such facilities normally house incarcerated individuals and they include jails, juvenile detention centers and prisons. Hitchcock, Schubert and Thomas (2003) assert that the people held in such facilities are normally perceived to be societal outfits due to the fact that they might have been involved in the commitment of one sort or crime or the other. Incarceration therefore implies that these people are kept away from the mainstream society and therefore are denied an opportunity to have normal social relations with the otherwise normal population of the society and according to Hitchcock, Schubert and Thomas (2003), this results in the individuals developing antisocial behavior such as being overly manipulative, lacking compassion for others or lacking the normal communication skills and therefore correctional nurses must be adequately equipped to deal with such kinds of antisocial behavior. Correctional nursing is an area in nursing that has evolved over the years from simply practice of providing basic healthcare to inmates to a practice that now involves the provision of specialized healthcare to inmates so as to ensure that the inmates are in good health both during and after their incarceration.
Some of the techniques used by some prisons are to have counseling service (Trulson et al., 2008) for gang members. This is to try to get into the mind of the gang member to see how they can break them of gang life and dependence. Keeping very aggressive gang members in the same prison (Carlson and Garrett, 2008) is an alternative as well. Studies have shown that aggressive prisoners seldom prey upon those inmates that are aggressive as well. A constant threat of violence between inmates could ultimately cause them to cease being aggressive and violent.
The existence of prisoner brutality within correctional institutions is not only a reflection of the larger society as well as a byproduct of the prison subculture, but is also the cause of vast consequences and resulting great implications on inmates, officers, communities, the justice system, and society as a whole, making its increasing yet well-hidden prevalence an essential issue to be uncovered and addressed by the United States. Abusive behavior of inmates and correctional staff has been an essential aspect of prison culture since the founding of the American penal system. Housing a number of violent and non-violent convicted criminals in close confinements provides a logical explanation as to why prisons are subject to an environment
Prison Environment I would describe the prison environment as a place where people are sent after they have committed a crime. In this environment, the offenders are locked up away from society and are stripped of the freedoms that they had before they were sent to prison. In this environment, the offenders must abide by strict rules, be confined to a small space, and are told when/if they can have visitors. The prison environment influences institutional management and custody in several ways. One of which being overcrowding.
Another study is Zimbardo’s prison study. This study shows how both the prisoners and the guards take on the roll that has been assigned to them quickly dropping their previous identities. It also shows how the prisoners identify with their in-group and rebel against them. This shows that people peoples behavior is not only individual but also from our social selves and this studies help me prove that we have a social identity in addition to our individual one. In the contrary just like any other theory there are strengths and limitation.