2 marks 4 Draw the structural formula of Compound G. 1 mark 5 Using the chemical shift correlation for 13C NMR, predict the number of peaks for Compound G and draw in the position of the peaks on the blank spectrum below, annotating each peak with its corresponding structure. (2 marks) 6 Draw the structural formula for 2-chloro but-2-ene. Below this draw a structural formula of an isomer of 2-chloro but-2-ene and name this substance.
Water samples from the Clark Fork have been taken and will be tested using both absorption and emissions spectroscopy in order to check the levels of group IA and IIA metal ions. When electrons in an element are excited energy is released that can be measured as light. Each element releases different levels of energy that are observed as different wavelengths of light. With the proper equations (E=hv and E=hc/⋋), emission spectroscopy can be used to find the wavelength and frequency of light emitted by the excited electrons. This will help determine the types of ions present in the water sample.
Calculations involving the Mole, Avogadro’s Number, Molar Mass, Mole-Mole and Mass-Mole calculations in chemical equations. Combustion analysis and calculation of empirical and molecular formulas from composition analysis. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Precipitation reactions and solubility rules. Writing balanced molecular equations and net ionic equations.
For this lab we want to observe how the chloro substituent has an effect on the reactivity of the possible hydrogen atoms. Experimental Results The following results on the table below was not from our own experiment but was obtained through a previous lab report that was posted in aumoodle.andrews.edu for our use by Dr. Ahlberg. Products | Relative % amounts of product | Relative Reactivity= (Relative % amount/number of hydrogen on the atom with the chloro substituent) | 1,1-dichlorobutane (minor product) | 5.97% | 2.98 | 1,2-dichlorobutane (minor product) | 23.98% | 11.99 | 1,3-dichlorobutane (major product) | 47.74% | 23.87 | 1,4-dichlorobutane (minor product) | 22.28% | 7.42 | Discussion: Based on the results of our table we can see that the relative reactivity of hydrogen atoms is influenced by several factors including the chloro substituent. One factor that determines the reactivity of the hydrogen atoms is based on how highly the carbon is substituted. For free radical formation, the more highly substituted the carbon atom is (methyl > primary > secondary >tertiary), the less energy it will require (Wade 2010).
Abstract The interaction at equilibrium between acids and bases during a titration can be used to determine several characteristics of the acid or the base. In this experiment 0.05 M of KHP titrate with the strong base NaOH. From the plot of pH versus the volume of sodium hydroxide added was found that acid ionization constant Ka for KHP at half point was equal to 8.3176x10-6, also the dissociation constant Kb for conjugate base of weak acid was equal to 1x10-9. This value was established by observing the pH versus volume of NaOH graph. The equivalence point of titration occurred at a volume of 31 mL 0.081M NaOH (aq).
If 0.100 mol of hydrogen iodide is placed in a 1.0 L container and allowed to reach equilibrium, find the concentrations of all reactants and products at equilibrium. 2 HI (g) === H2 (g) + I2 (g) Ke = 1.84(10-2 [H2]=[I2]= 1.07(10-2 mol/L, [HI]=7.86(10-2 mol/L 6. A 1.00 L reaction vessel initially contains 9.28(10-3 moles of H2S. At equilibrium, the concentration of H2S of 7.06(10-3 mol/L. Calculate the value of Ke for this system.
Objectives: The purpose of this lab is to observe the reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide by looking at the relationship between concentration and time elapsed of the crystal violet. CV+ + OH- CVOH To quantitatively observe this reaction of crystal violet, the rate law is used. The rate law tells us that the rate is equal to a rate constant (k) multiplied by the concentration of crystal violet to the power of its reaction order ([CV+]p) and the concentration of hydroxide to the power of its reaction order ([OH-]q). Rate = k[CV+]p[OH-]q To fully understand the rate law, concentrations of the substances must be looked at first. The concentration is measured in molarity.
Chemical environment surrounding the carbons are different and therefore affecting the character of the hydrogens attached. This difference in chemical environment finally explains the different interaction between hydrogen and chlorine. Determination of percent yield, and relative reactivity data was processed after the products of the reaction were analyzed using Gas Chromatography. Percent yield was calculated for each isomer and determined to be; 5.94% for 1,1-dichlorobutane, 23.1% for 1,2-dichlorobutane, 47.1% for 1,3-dichlorobutane, and 23.9% for 1,4-dichlorobutane. The relative reactivity of the hydrogens H1, H2, H3 , and H4 were 0.37, 1.4, 2.9, and 1.0 respectively.
Bromination of Arenes This lab demonstrated the application of adding bromine to various arenes, hydrocarbons with alternating single bonds. This process, bromination, is a mechanism which treats hydrogen as a functional group. This being the case, the rate of reaction of certain arenes can be measured and compared to that of other arenes upon the addition of the bromine. The reaction occurs when the bromine radical generates from the halide diatomic molecule, using light energy. The fact that the energy needed to break the necessary bonds falls within the visible light spectrum is the basis on which the experiment is based.
The balanced equations for this reaction shows that the molar ratio of magnesium reacted to hydrogen gas produced is 1:1. Therefore, by determining the mass of magnesium that reacts and the number of moles that this mass is equal to, you will also be able to determine the number of moles of hydrogen gas produced. The volume of hydrogen gas produced will be measured directly on the scale of a gas-measuring tube. The gas laws of Boyle and Charles will be used to correct this volume, measured under laboratory conditions, to the volume the sample of gas would occupy at STP. The collected data (number of moles and volumes at STP) will be used to calculate that molar volume of the hydrogen gas.