Influenza A Essay

416 WordsMar 27, 20122 Pages
What biotic factors play a role in the spread of influenza A virus (IAV)? A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism, including fungi, bacteria, pathogens, viruses, animals, plants and etc.(David and Jeffery 2010, Nicholls 2006). Each biotic factor needs energy to do work and food for proper growth which includes human influence (Maher and Butler 2009). They are a key role in spread of the influenza A virus, which is a pathogenic virus that affects the respiratory tract (Maher and Butler 2009). It is a bacteria that spread the virus in humans and many mammals like cats, dogs, horses, pigs, and other mammals have been affected by IAV (Forgie et al. 2010). Influenza A virus is made up of a protein coat and a single strand of RNA split into eight segments (Nicholls 2006). Each of the eight strands carry a single gene. Two of these encodes are Hemagglutinin (HA), a surface antigen that the virus uses to bind to and break into host cells, and Neuraminidase (NA) which helps the new virus escape and infect other cells (Nicholls 2006). The host immune system targets HA and NA, subjecting them to strong selective pressure (Nicholls 2006). Genetic mutation alters the antigenic properties of the two target proteins, which is referred to as antigenic drift. Antigenic shift is a major change in the antigenic properties (Nicholls 2006). The two proteins caused reassortment of one or more of the HA or NA subtypes that circulate in wild birds. IAV are highly considered to be avian virus (Forgie et al. 2010). They are resident in large reservoir in which many species of wild animals and shorebirds are individually promiscuous in undergoing an extraordinary degree of genetic change within their primary hosts (David and Jeffery 2010). Extensive documentation of human and animal influenza over many centuries suggests that the virus has adapted to

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