Ass 1 Task 4; Explain how children and young people`s development is influenced by a range of external factors. Some external factors that could influence children are; childcare arrangements, family, poverty previous education and where they live. If a child has been taken into care or has been moved around a lot this child could be unsettled and they might misbehave as they are afraid of rejection. This could also happen if a child`s parents separate the child would feel under pressure to choose a parent or that a parent might leave. Family can have a big effect on a child’s development for example if the child is an only child he / she will not know how to socialise with other children.
Parents divorcing can be very distressing for children and can make them feel angry, sad, powerless and abandoned. Parents arguing a lot at home is also negative for a child and will cause them mental and emotional difficulties and is particularly associated with children having low self-esteem, this being a significant factor in reduced educational detainment and social relationship issues. Having a family member who is misusing alcohol also contributes to children’s mental and emotional health as they have a higher risk of developing mental issues. How intellectual a child is deemed to be also effects emotional and mental health. Society rewards educational achievement so success or failure contributes to how children value or devalue themselves.
Task 2: How does an infant or child’s temperament affect the development of attachment & the development of social behaviours? An infant or child’s temperament can have a positive or negative affect on attachment. As well how the parents temperament will affect this as well. For example if you have a parent who is always on the go and very active and her baby is more calm and relaxed they may have a harder time to build a secure attachment they will have to adjust to their different temperaments. If a parent is always stressed and worried there child will sense this and not feel as loved as a parent who is more warm and comforting.
Some of these problems might be physical. Emotional scars can be present throughout life as well. These can wreck a child’s sense of worth, destroying their capability of having normal relationships. Also, their ability to function at home, work, and school might take a plunge. Without this healthy foundation of life, it is very challenging learning to get close to people or know who is trustworthy.
This could lead them to being unable to form positive and stable friendships due to disruptive behaviour, being unable to achieve academic goals or, in worse scenarios, imprisoned. Moreover if the parent or guardian is the role model exposing them to unlawful behaviour is it possible the parent may be jailed and the child may be bullied or taken into care. Poverty usually results from a low income. Lack of funds can result in poor nutrition from a bad diet, lack of adequate clothing and unsuitable housing. Separately or collectively these aspects are likely to impact negatively within the education environment as the child is: unlikely to own the latest 'must-have' accessories; unlikely to attend trips or be involved in extra-curricular activities; possible to be under stress and experience depression; likely to have low self-esteem or sense of well-being as a result of bullying or low expectations from teachers and parents.
When a parent or guardian does any type of abuse to a child it causes them to feel bad about themselves. Some children blame themselves for getting abused because they feel that if they were a perfect child they would not have got hit in the first place. In addition, it may cause the child to feel as if he or she can not please their parents or peers. Another effect of child abuse is the child grows to have no self-value. This mainly occurs when a parents use verbal abuse and puts his or her child down.
Alternatively listlessness could be seen as an indicator that he is unwell, as could tiredness, weepiness or disruptiveness. To identify the cause of unusual behaviour it is necessary to consider both the personality of the child and also the context. Some unacceptable behaviour may be preceded, or triggered, by similar events. For example, separation from the primary carer (although it is sometimes the adults anxiety that is transferred to the child), or by being asked or expected to perform a new task whem he doubts his own ability or fears failure. Identifying triggers connected to unacceptable behaviour is important in managing and modifying the behaviour of a child.
Emotional needs of children need to be met ‘neglect can occur when parents abandon the child, or simply have no time to spend with the child, in essence leaving the child to raise himself’ (http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Neglect.html) see appendix …. Neglect can affect the child’s development. An example of how neglect can affect a child’s health is poor nutrition, if the correct nutrients are not are not available to children the child’s growth development will not follow the normal pattern and developmental stages will be delayed. ‘Common physical and psychological reactions to neglect include stunted growth, chronic medical problems, inadequate bone and muscle growth, and lack of neurological development that negatively affects normal brain functioning and information processing.’ (http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Neglect.html#ixzz2HxRH2n98) see appendix …. This negativity affecting the brain can make processing problems difficult for the child understand social relationships or harder for the child to complete academic tasks without assistance or intervention from others.
On the contrary, those children raised with little discipline and poor monitoring are prone to delinquency when exposed to the negative elements of the environment. According to Siegel (2011), family is the primary unit where children learn the values and attitudes that will guide them throughout their lives but when this very important unit is disrupt or goes under drastic changes can have negative long-lasting effects in the children. Family break ups, family conflicts, family ineffectiveness and family deviance might lead the children to the never ending road of criminality. Research indicates that parents whose marriage is happy and secure produce confident and independent children. Children of broken homes with one or both
The detrimental effects that divorce has on children can range, however there are similarities and correlations between most children. The emotional toll can be ranging from mild depression to anxiety but long-term the child can develop emotional problems and insecurities based on the quarrel between their parents (Shaw, Ingoldsby). The children tend to develop a sort of separation-based reality torn between the two sides of the mother and father. Children are less likely to seek the assistance of their parents when they are divorced, and sometimes have inter-parental conflicts that stem from each parent trying to take control of the child. Having to choose between a parent might be a decision that has to be made by the child.