Theme: Assess the view that throughout 1855-1964, Russian rulers opposed change. To assess this view it is important to consider a number of areas including the role of opposition, and backwardness and poor state of the country. Trotsky described war as a ‘locomotive of change’ and Russian involvement in war throughout the period meant that this was very much the case. Russian rulers were also to some degree reluctant reformers who were opposed to change as most changes throughout the period were forced upon them and were usually followed with restrictions, such as the Fundamental Laws reducing the impact of the Duma. This was probably due to their authoritarian ideology.
After their win in the Russo-Japan War Japan began to try to expand their once isolated country. Differences include, Japan becoming an imperial power and undergoing political reforms while Russia was struggling to keep their territory from Western Europe. Russia could not maintain socially stability, contrary to Japan being able to maintain social cohesion. Furthermore, Japan through its reforms isolated itself from the rest of East Asia while Russia continued expanding its influence in Eastern Europe and central Asia. Japan pulled
During the early 30s America’s foreign policy began to change. President Franklin D. Roosevelt knew that war was unavoidable so even though America was neutral, he began to make preparation for a war. Franklin D. Roosevelt began to build up the military and to recruit people for the long expected war. During the next few years, changes were made to the Foreign Policy. One of the changes is that America began the Lend Lease Act which rented military weapons to Britain and later the Soviet Union and China.
Gradually Ottoman Empire moved toward fiscal insolvency and financial dependency. Bureaucrats and officers were educated about European political, social, and cultural traditions. Soon many of them went against the ruler of the Ottoman empire. * 17th century Ottoman Empire had reached limits of expansion as a result of lagging behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, and training. * During 17th and 18th century Janissaries repeatedly masterminded palace corp and by 19th century had become a powerful political force with in the Ottoman Empire * Janissaries neglected their military training and turned a blind eye to advances in weapons technology.
Explain why Alexander II introduced further reforms after the emancipation edict of 1861 Emancipation opened many opportunities for further reforms and forced a change in the structure of the Russian society. Serfdom was abolished and the nobility could no longer control them which led to light being shed on other problems in society such as the law, industry and also the military. The most important reason for the introduction of further reforms is that they were a reasonable response to the emancipation of the serfs, but only in short term. The emancipation act gave the serfs power to control their own lives instead of being dictated by people of a higher status, such as the nobility. For this, rural councils known as the Zemstvas were set up in 1864 which offered the serfs a representative government; but they were mostly dominated by the nobility and professionals and many of them resented their loss of power over the serfs.
This in turn led to things such as the American Revolution and the commonly known phrase “taxation without representation”. With the rapid spread of Colonialism and the eventual lead into Imperialism, this led to tensions between nations as they struggled to gain more territory and more colonies. These tensions ultimately brought about World War
Why did the opposition grow between August 1914 and December 1916? “The events that took place on the Eastern Front...would have a profound impact upon world history for the remainder of the century.” This reference shows that the facts and historic value of the tsars ruling had a profound effect on history that century. In August 1914 Russia was facing hardship. June 28th Franz Ferdinand was assassinated which later started a war between Germany and Russia. The opposition against the Tsar grew due to the loss of war and other factors such as; the Tsar controlling the army, the refusal to co-operate with the Dumas and Rasputin being an advisor.
How far did the introduction of Western Style reforms and the use of foreigners assist Peter the Great in strengthening his absolute rule? Peter the Great was influenced by the instability in Russia he had witnessed in Childhood, and was determined to expunge the subversive element of his population which could precipitate a resurgence of this anti-authoritarian violence. Further aims included the unification of Russia, extension of territory and its defence against the Poles, Tatars and Swedes. This required securing his absolutism, as internal security is a prerequisite of an effective foreign policy. Although foreigners and western-style changes did not cover the entire scope of his developments, they certainly appear to have been a fundamental
Isolationism , the made idea in the early 1920’s was changed after the course of World War 2, and urge to engage in world affairs made America the leading power in the world. America was beginning to get through World War 1 and trying to establish better relations with world powers but their differences led America into changing its foreign policies politically. Although most of the countries joined the League of Nations, America had from the start opposed it. As president Harding says in a speech at Des Moines, Iowa on October 1920 that he completely opposes America Joining the League because it is against the constitution and what Americans had fought for. Isolationism is still the idea in Washington.
However, by the time of his graduation, Sun believed that whilst the Manchu dynasty still existed, China would remain corrupt and backwards. His experiences abroad shaped his political ideas as at the beginning of the 20th century, the West were advancing and modernising their countries quicker than Sun’s own country of China. He toured Europe and America in hope to raise funds for the “Save China League” and made attempts to start a revolution against the Qing for example, the unsuccessful uprising in Canton, 1895. Sun worked hard travelling around to different countries, gaining more foreign funds and support. Sun Yatsen influenced the Chinese with his Three Principles – Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism and later in 1905; he formed the United League which was a revolutionary