India Essay

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The Indus Valley civilization emerged near the river valley of the Indus River around 3000 B.C. The civilization consisted of more than a thousand civilizations but mostly the two major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. The Harappan rulers based their power on divine assistance. Religious and political powers were closely linked. The Harappan economy was based on farming and the Indus River was a key factor. The farmers needed the Indus River to flood and produce fertile soil. The civilization also carried on trade with the city states in Mesopotamia. Floods, earthquakes, and climate changes changed the course of the Indus River and weakened the Indus Valley Civilizations. The Aryans were a group of nomadic people who moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plain of northern India. The Aryans were part of a larger group of Indo- Europeans. The Indo- Europeans eventually split and some groups went to Europe and some to India and Iran. The Aryans were one of these groups and they began to settle in the Indus Valley. They soon began a new civilization based on their culture and institutions. They advanced eastward to the Deccan Plateau and ended up controlling most of ancient India. They did this by conquest; the Aryans were warlike people. The Aryans were a pastoral people who had a strong warrior tradition. After the Aryans ended up settling in India they gave up their pastoral life and settled for farming. The creation of iron tools helped the Aryan farmers farm their land. The Aryans grew rice, grains and vegetables. The Aryans created their own written language, Sanskrit. They wrote down many of their religious chants and rituals. The writings tell us that Aryan leaders called rajas lead small states. The states were often at war with one another to gain the most land and treasure. In ancient India, a number of kingdoms emerged during the

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