In the Last Exam, You Wrote About Urciuoli's Ideas About Racialization and Ethnicization. for This Essay, Explain How the Articles by Hollinger and Ngai Can Amplify Urciuoli's Understanding of the Situation of African
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Hollinger writes about "hypodescent" (the one-drop rule) and anti-miscegenation laws (laws prohibiting intermarriage between people of different race). His general point is that these two features of the American racial system (both of which were institutionalized in various ways, in national, state, and local laws and in local or regional systems of etiquette) segregated or marked African Americans in ways that no other group has experienced, which is why the Black-White divide in the U.S. is so hard to overcome.
Hollinger highlights the peculiarity of the one-drop rule by comparing the place of "African [or Black] blood" to "Indian blood." It is commonplace for White Americans to proclaim proudly that they are "one-eighth Cherokee" or "part Indian." The Indian, as a racialized other, can be depicted as a noble savage or an ignoble savage. As the latter (the bloodthirsty pagans of frontier legend), Indians could be exterminated or displaced. But as the former (the noble savage) the brave, ecologically sound Indian warrior (as in sports mascots) is seen by the mainstream as part of our own national heritage (see Higham's article on the use of the Indian princess to represent America in early maps). Blood connection to one of these noble savages is something to be proud of, not shunned; and such a connection ("I'm part Indian") does not negate one's basic status as a White, unmarked American.
But, as we discussed in class, in the U.S., if you have any Black ancestors, then you are Black. It's not possible for a person to say "I'm one-eighth African American" and to also say "I'm White." If you have any African-American blood, then you are classified as Black in the U.S. This is what Hollinger calls hypodescent.
The upshot is that African Americans as a group have been more cut off from other groups in the U.S., partly because their family connections
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