Unit CYPOP 14 – Support Children & Young people to have positive relationships L.O 1.1- Identify the different relationships children and young people may have Parents Carers Siblings Family Friendships Emotional/sexual Acquaintances Extended family Healthcare providers Social workers Teachers Childminders Neighbours. L.O 1.2 – Explain the importance of positive relationships for development and wellbeing Positive relationships are important as they will help children feel more secure and happy in the setting. If the child feels secure they are less likely to have any separation anxiety and more likely to get involved in play and other activities which will help their overall development. A child who has positive relationships is more likely to talk more and develop their language skills. They will also be less likely to show unwanted behaviour because the carer will be able to recognise their needs and meet them.
The learning theory describes two types of actual learning in relation to this known as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning refers to involuntary responses and how they transfer to new situations. The procedure involves a pairing of stimulus and response, with a subject that comes to represent the given response. For example, if a baby were happy after being fed by its caregiver, it would soon learn to associate that happiness with its mother, and feel happy on seeing her alone rather than just when being fed. This demonstrates quite clearly how the learning theory suggests that an infant's responses would be based purely on physiological need; an emotional bond does form but the learning theory argues that only as a result of the need to be fed and survive.
The diversity of social, emotional, and personal aspects of a child's life can have a fundamental influence on their development and social worlds as children and later on in adulthood (Ding., S, 2005). Parent and caregiver (especially mothers) relationships with their children have been explored by researchers extensively and ethological studies have provided support in understanding human development especially in regards to infants attachment and in predicting behaviours and personality later on in life. Research has developed since the focus was on mother-child influences and the interest in children's interactions with all relationships has increased (Littleton., K, and Meill., D, 2005). Harris (1998) and Pinker (2002) have argued that parental influences have been grossly exaggerated and that it is within peer groups that socialization occurs (Littleton et al, 2005). The focus of this essay is on peer-peer and sibling-sibling interaction in regards to the different contexts in which these relationships take place.
Lev Vygotsky’s theory was based on social/emotional development needs to show demonstration/imagination to allow a child to progress. His belief was based on the kinaesthetic technique as he believed that when children observe someone that is more advanced than them they learn from them and imitate their actions. Lev Vygotsky“...suggested that this silent inner speech and spoken social speech are connected...” (Meggitt et al, 2012. P.80). It is critical to link his theory to practice as it encourages/allows children to communicate with other children using their social skills which they have developed and allows children to build self-confidence.
Bowlby's aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would have on an infant's later development. Drawing on much work in the psychoanalytic literature, such as that of Freud and Harlow, Bowlby formulated the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure early in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a
(1) Outline any two theories of child development and discuss how they contribute to your understanding of the developing child. This essay will outline two theories of child development, and focus on how they contribute to understanding the developing child. * The process of emotional development is underpinned by attachment theory (Bowlby ’69 ’73’ ’80 ’88a’88b) Bowlby argued that the propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular adults is a basic component of human nature and is instinctive * Describe changes within areas of behaviour (e.g. language or socialisation) Describe changes in the relationships between areas of behaviour (e.g. language and socialisation) Explain the course of development according to these descriptions That is, a theory must account for the transitions from one point in development to another and must identify causal variables affecting transition * Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment.
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into theworld pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them tosurvive. His theory consists of five clear factors that were linked to the developmentof attachment from an infant to its primary care giver; usually the mother. Firstly hestates that attachments are “adaptive” which means the child is at an advantageto survive as it ensures safety and food in order to reproduce. Bowlby states thatchildren are born with innate social releasers such as laughing, crying and attractivefacial features including big cheeks and large eyes which provide them with extracare and comfort. It is important for the infant to form a bond with its caregiverwithin a certain period of time, also known as the critical period.
3.1 An explanation of the benefits for babies and young children of a key worker/person system in early years settings. In the early years setting each child has to be given a key worker. This is because the EYFS statutory framework states that in the framework in the early years setting they have to stick by. The benefits of the key workers for babies and young children are when the babies and young children are more independent, you would do this by the young children and babies to being able to depend on adults for reassurance for comfort. This will make the babies and young children feel happy and feel safe and secure they get more confidantes to explore and try new things out.
Though, researches and studies have given me a broader picture of the concept of sensitive mothering, mother and child bonding and their impacts on the social and emotional development of a child. In this essay we will discuss sensitive mothering in relation to attachment theory of John Bowlby together with Ainsworth patterns of attachment. Also, link the concept with Erik Erikson psychodynamic theory and will look into researches on the impact of early attachments on social and emotional development over a life span. Sensitive mothering as explained (Ainsworth et al. (1971) in Meins et al.
Being attached to someone means that you have formed an emotional relationship to that person. This is important thorough out our lives but particularly important during the vulnerable period of infancy when babies rely on caregivers to meet their needs (Cardwell, Clark & Meldrum, 2003). Forming an attachment to a primary caregiver is an innate behaviour and insures survival of the infant. This essay will describe and evaluate Ainsworth’s (1970) Strange Situation procedure and will discuss the types of attachments infant form. The psychologist John Bowlby (1969) suggested that infant attachments influence their emotional development through an internal working model which acts as a template for future relationships.