These and many other questions still remain to be subject of concern to scholars. Colonization of Africa by European countries was a monumental significant in the development of Africa. The Africans took into account the impact of colonization on them to be perhaps the most important factor in understanding the present condition of the African continent and of the African people. Therefore, a close scrutiny of the phenomenon of colonialism is necessary to understand the degree to which it influenced not only the economic and political development of Africa but also the African people’s perception of themselves. This dissertation focuses on the reaction to colonialism from 1900 to 1964 in Northern Rhodesia.
Colonialism is the expansion of a nation's control over territory beyond its borders and has direct political and economic control over the country and its people. European colonialism began as early as in the fifteenth century with the Portuguese and Spanish exploration of the Americas, the coasts of Africa and India. However it was not until the 17th century that Britain, France and Holland established their overseas colonies. The Berlin Conference of 1884 decided which European countries get which territories in Africa which led to the most rapid form of European expansion called the ‘Scramble for Africa’ which took place between 1886 and 1914. The countries involved in the ‘Scramble for Africa’ were Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Germany and Italy.
How far do you agree that changing attitudes to Empire within Britain explain both expansion and the dismantling of British imperial power in Africa? The British Empire began to expand into Africa in 1880 and by 1913 the empire had control over 458 million people and 25% of the world's land. However by 1981 the British Empire had come to an end after it could no longer afford the maintenance of such a big Empire. British involvement in Africa was a period that saw many changes, some economic, some international and political changes, which in turn led to many adjustments in Africa itself. In turn these changes affected attitudes of the British government and public opinion and undoubtedly influenced key decisions about both expansion and dismantlement in Africa.
Thus, the North African campaign and the naval campaign for the Mediterranean were extensions of each other in a very real sense. The struggle for control of North Africa began as early as October 1935, when Italy invaded Ethiopia from its colony Italian Somaliland. That move made Egypt very wary of Italy's imperialistic aspirations. In reaction, the Egyptians granted Britain permission to station relatively large forces in their territory. Britain and France also agreed to divide the responsibility for maintaining naval control of the Mediterranean, with the main British base located at Alexandria, Egypt.
Alliances: An agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as Allies. A number of alliances had been signed by countries between the years 1879 and 1914. These were important because they meant that some countries had no option but to declare war if one of their allies declared war first. Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa (1880-1900) was a period of rapid colonization of the African continent by European powers.
To what extend was the colonisation and decolonisation of Britain’s Africa driven by individuals within Africa? Before the 1870’s Africa was largely unknown to the outside world but, in the 1880’s the scramble of Africa began, where European counties, especially Britain all wanted to colonise Africa. Was the whole reason for British colonising Africa economically or strategically driven or was it led by individuals in Africa (men on the spot) or was it more of a top down process led by the government in Britain? And even though Britain fought so hard to control large parts of Africa it is clear that after World II Britain’s empire was declining especially after India gain independence in 1947. However, the British did try to revive their African empire in the late 40’s and early 50’s but their sudden fall into a steep imperial decline with the Suez crises saw individuals like Macmillan to acknowledge that decolonisation was the only way forward, as it would be more beneficial for Britain to decolonise than to resist the rise of nationalism.
THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA The scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the rush or hurry for African territories by European powers. These European powers rushed for African territories due to several reasons. These causes can be categorized into economic, social, political and humanitarian/social reasons. Partitioning is simply the division/sharing of African land among European powers. SCHOOL:CARITAS SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADE :TEN(SENIOR) TOPIC: THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA OBJECTIVES: PSBAT: 1.
The Rise of Colonialism in Africa Between 1870 and 1900, Europe set out to colonize Africa for their raw materials. Africa was up against invasions of Europe's military and diplomatic pressures. This did not happen without a fight, and Africans were not happy about this attempt to be colonized. With the exception of Ethiopia and Liveria, Africa had been colonized by Europe by the early twentieth century. Europe wanted to set up and colonize in Africa, mainly because of Africa's raw materials it was purely economic.
THE CONCEPT OF NEOCOLONIALISM Neocolonialism is a concept derived from colonialism; and there is some theoretical consensus concerning its development. Scholars in postcolonial studies like Robert Young, Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin agree that inspite of the looseness of the term, neocolonialism originated with Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana's first post-independence president. The term neocolonialism first saw widespread use, particularly in reference to Africa, soon after the process of decolonization which followed a struggle by many national independence movements in the colonies following World War II. Upon gaining independence, some national leaders and opposition groups argued that their countries were being subjected to a new form of colonialism, waged by the former colonial powers and other developed nations. Kwame Nkrumah, who in 1957 became leader of newly independent
The Abyssinian crisis was in the 1930’s and took place in Abyssinia (known as Ethiopia today) in Africa. Italy sent in soldiers to conquer the country to increase its colonial empire. The leader of Abyssinia appealed to the League of Nations for help. The League proved in effective in dealing with the crisis. This had serious consequences for not only Abyssinia but also the survival of the League itself and its principle of “collective security” In April 1935 the Stresa Front was formed, it was triggered by Germany's declaration of its intention to build up an air force, to increase the size of its army.