CONSTITUTIONS, GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORRUPTION: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR NIGERIA.
INTRODUCTION The Transparency International Annual Corruption Perception Index consistently
rated Nigeria as one of the most corrupt, - at one time or the other the most corrupt – nation in the world. 1 The acknowledgment of corruption constitutionally 2 and judicially 3 , as one of the foremost challenges to governance and development in Nigeria, informed the making of the “Anti-Corruption Campaign” as a fundamental policy of the President Olusegun Obasanjo government, that was established by the 1999 Constitution. 4 Nigeria’s status as an oil producing nation (member of OPEC) with enormous revenue generation capacity from oil and non-oil exports, woefully contrasts with its decaying infrastructural and institutional development. The effects of years of dictatorial and corrupt governance by successive military administration are glaringly manifest in
In 2000 Nigeria was rated as the most corrupt nation in the world out of a total of 90 countries. In 2001, Nigeria was rated the second most corrupt nation out of a total of all 91 countries assessed. In 2002 Nigeria retained its number two position as the most corrupt country out of a total of 102. Though by 2005 Nigeria was ranked number six out of 186 countries. Rankings available online at http://www/fordham.edu/economics/vinod/cie/ti-cpi2k.htm [2000 Index], http://www.transparency.org/cpi/2001/2002. 06.28. cpi. en. html; http://www.infa.please. Com/ipa/A078135Q.htm [In 2003 Nigeria was ranked as the most corrupt country out of a total of 133]; http://ww1.transparency org./cpi/2005/dnld/media – pack – en-pdf. 2 See Report of the Drafting Committee containing the Draft Constitution (1976) Vol. 1. p. XXXIII para. 7.5; Report of the Political Bureau 1987 (Federal Government of Nigeria, Printer, Lagos) 213 Para 12. 037. – 12.039.; See also Justice A.N. Aniagolu, The Making of the 1989 Constitution of Nigeria. 1993...