Impact Africa's Geography Had On Its Development

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To begin, it would only seem right to explain the background of Africa itself before going into the methods through which its development was affected by the geography of the region. The continent of African was one that has been said to have rain forests, but that statement has been countered numerous times. In addition, the region had seafaring trade with numerous other civilizations and deserts that both hindered, and benefited certain civilizations. The agricultural aspects and benefits of the region played a role in its geography, making it a key element in the scale of development of the region and impacting it immensely. The Nile River, in particular, was an aspect of agriculture whose impact on African societies would change the way we see it today. The ancient Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile River, where the soil was rich and the agricultural opportunities were plentiful. The Nile River cut through something of an arid landscape, so the people clustered along the riverbanks, where, in addition to farms, they constructed towns and cities. Though we often think of ancient Egypt in terms of massive construction projects, such as the pyramids, most Egyptians lived in smaller towns. Unlike the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the Nile floods at a predictable time of the year and in relatively predictable stages. This made it possible for the ancient Egyptians to follow a very stable agricultural cycle and compile substantial food surpluses. Although later on taken over by Alexander the Great, the Nile River remained a source of fertile land and a river upon which the Egyptian calendar was based on. It is not clear how much influence, if any, the kingdoms of the upper Nile had on the later history of sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of ironworking certainly spread, facilitating the expansion of agriculture in other parts of the continent.
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