Unlike consequentialist views of ethics, Kant's philosophy has been focusing on the intention of acts rather than the consequences of acts. The formula of humanity as it ends in itself prohibits all kinds of manipulation and exploitation of individuals for selfish or even altruistic ends, and specifically demand to respect each and every one's interest. Kant claims that 'rational nature' or 'the human being and in general every rational being' exist "as end in itself", thus, valuing rational nature have the capacity to set ends for oneself. Rational human, is an autonomous and moral agents, who can act in accordance with moral law. Thus they are ‘above all price’.
Therefore, deontologists follow the belief that certain actions are inherently good if they follow the stated rules even if the action has bad consequences, it can still be defined as moral. In contrast, teleological ethical systems focus completely on the outcomes and consequences of an act. Teleology is a theory of ethics according to which the rightness of an act is determined by it's end. Also known as consequentialism, actions that result in what can be considered as a good consequence must be good and so the end result will justify the reason that the act was committed in the first place. Both deontological and teleological ethical systems use opposing ethical guides yet they both have the same aim, to help people make moral decisions.
Immanuel Kant puts forward an argument from deontological ethics and therefore is an ethical theory considered solely on duty and obligations, where one has an unchanging moral obligation to abide by a set of defined principles. Thus the ends of any action do not justify the means, i.e. if someone were to do their moral duties, then it would not matter if it had negative consequences. Thus, rules come above all else according to Kant. Kant argues that only one fact is undisputable, and that simply is that there is a moral law in existence, which then leads to the existence of God.
I Definition This section will provide definitions of ethical theories, such as Deontology, Egoism, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Theory. Deontology (Kantianism) theory stipulates that people must decide for themselves what is rational. Personal desires outside of one’s principles are thought of as outside forces with the potential to thwart rationality. One who acts as a Kantian must be completely unwavering of these principles. Egoism is the ethical theory that people are largely consumed with their own self-interests, and all acts are pursued primarily out of self-interest and personal desires.
The Maxim of Freedom of Expression in Light of Kant Concept The issue of autonomy has for long been viewed as self centered. The critics of autonomy claim that it gives an individual the moral justification to have less use of other individuals. The independent individual is believed to be his own ethical judge and has little or no need of the outside world or the people around him. This paper defends the right of expression of individuals against this critique. The analysis of this critique is based on Kantian concepts.
Immanuel Kant was a deontologist who believed that reason was the final authority for morality, not the consequences of one’s actions as believed by the utilitarians. In other words, all actions would be undertaken with a sense of duty that has been dictated by reason. Kant recognized two types of imperatives by which we act: the Hypothetical Imperative, which stipulates an instrumental action to a goal/result/end; and the Categorical Imperative, which stipulates that the actions we take are irrespective of one’s desires/goals/ends but are bound by duty. The ‘Inquiring Murderer’ is one example of how Kant shows that we should use the Categorical Imperative (CI) to obtain an answer according to his version of morality. We must lie to be a moral person, sending our friend to their impending death.
I believe that ethical conduct appeals to “conscience”. In judging whether a person’s actions are ethical, I look to the intent behind his actions, rather than focusing on results. In other words, to consider ethical I believe that we must choose how we act and what rules we are willing to follow. From my perspective, ethical principles must be (a) appropriate under any circumstances; (b) respectable of human dignity; (c) committed to promoting individual freedom and autonomy. I do not consider human beings treated as “means” to the accomplishment of some defined “end”.
Metaphysics is the fundamental part of any philosophical system. Baptista mondi in his introduction to the mataphysics of Aquinas buttress this point by contending that a philosopher is original only when his metaphysics is original. The history of traditional metaphysics dates back to Aristotle. Even though the later did not use the term metaphysics, his work set some of the basic themes in the study of metaphysics. As a science of being, its object is pure being or being qua being.
Personality and moral self explain how and why human beings make free choices. The libertarianism theory has been explained by CA Campbell, who said that human beings see themselves as free agents and therefore accept moral responsibility for their actions. Humans must accept responsibility for these actions and face any consequences that may come their way. John Stuart Mill - an influencal figure in Liberatarianism – believe we are free and morally responsible for all our actions. Mill believed it was extremely important that an indivduals free will should not be crushed by society.
NML is seen as objectively ideal, it is something that everyone should strive for as it is an objective truth which ties in with Moral Realism, this means there are objective truths, things that we should do/should not do because they are definitely right or wrong. This then ties in with a priori ethics, which means our ethical knowledge has nothing to do with our experience or influences, it is just knowable in the universe, we just know it, this is what NML is seen as, we do not learn it, we just know it. Aquinas was very influenced by Aristotle especially his view that everything has a purpose and these purposes can be understood through looking at the natural world and through the bible which reveals the purpose for which God created man. St Paul said the moral law of God is evident from the nature of man and the world, ‘Ever since the creation of the world, his invisible nature, namely, his external power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made’, Aquinas said God gave man reason to accomplish the purposes NML whether we believe in him or not. All humans can understand and follow NML but only the believers in God know that if they do, it will be beneficial for them beyond the