If Freedom Is Possible in One Part of Nature, It Is Possible for All. Discuss

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If freedom is possible in one part of nature, it is possible for all. Discuss The possibility of freedom is a difficult philosophical problem where there are many arguments on either side. This essay shall first look at the arguments of Sartre which advocates a type of absolute freedom. In contrast to this, Holbach's arguments for a mechanistic universe and a materialistic account of human nature shall be presented. Having presented these arguments, the final section will cover the more compatibilist concepts of freedom, given by Hegel, Hume, and Kant. Compatibilism is the idea that we can be free agents in a causal universe, by virtue of some quality. In the case of Hume and Kant, this quality is a freedom of morals. After looking at these arguments, this essay shall conclude that although some amount of freedom may be possible, freedom throughout the entirety of nature does not seem to be so. The first argument in favour of absolute freedom will be from Jean-Paul Sartre. Although he was more concerned with ontology than metaphysics, his account for freedom can be seen to allow for freedom throughout all of nature. To start with, we must begin with two irreducible categories that he outlines; in-itself and for-itself. These categories have mutually exclusive qualities, but we as human beings combine the two. The former is self-identical, solid, passive and inert. More simply put, the in-self just is. The latter category is said to be fluid, not self-identical and dynamic. The for-itself is an internal negation of the in-itself. From here, the features that constitute us and give rise to 'situations', such as language, environment, past experiences and our very sense of self are in-themselves. As conscious beings, Sartre argues that we surpass the in-itself elements of any given 'situation' we are involved in whilst still being engaged with it. To this end,

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