The inner form (the term of Potebnia) – the closest etymological meaning of the word, the means of expressing the content. It reflects the image. According to prof.Zorivchak, every PU as a polylexeme construction consists of a combination of lexemes with a certain structure and grammatical features (the first sense layer). The verbal image appears on the basis of the first sense layer and then is shaped into the phraseological meaning (the second sense layers). This general meaning is one semantic whole, which is the result of interrelationship of all individual semes.
The essence of this analytical literary composition is to find out what the differences and similarities between a word and a morpheme. In the English language, words are made up of different units. These components can be put together to come up with words. The branch of linguistics that deals with the study of word structures especially in terms of morphemes is called Morphology. Morphology as a branch of linguistics aims at describing the structures of words and the patterns of word formation (Klammer, 2007).
in Hartmann 1987: 125). In response to the potential needs of users, general monolingual dictionaries do include brief etymologies, but more extensive references have been confined almost exclusively to etymological and historical dictionaries, on the assumption that they can engage the attention of scholars and students of the history of English only. Word histories are, however, of great interest to metalexicographers, or lexicographic researchers, who study various aspects of dictionaries and the dictionary-making process. The present paper focuses on one area for which etymological references are vital: foreign elements in the English lexicon. More precisely, I look at Russian borrowings recorded in dictionaries of English, and focus on similarities and differences in their lexicographic description.
Running Head: FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE VERSUS LITERAL LANGUAGE A figure of speech is a word picture. It can be a comparison between two objects, people or events to highlight shared qualities between the two. Additionally, figures of speech can be exaggerations or ironies. Sometimes words are used in context to mean the opposite of their literal meaning. Literal language is straightforward speech where words are interpreted according to their normal, dictionary definition.
Steven Pinker : The Language Instinct Chapter Words, Words, Words from Pinker‘s Language Instinct deals with the mental dictionary of language and shows the variety and wondrousness as well as curiosity of creating new words in English. Although English as a synthetic language could be seen as morphologically limited, there are plenty of different word-forming processes which make the number of possible English words infinite. However there are certain rules to be followed. Words have their own internal structure based on small pieces they are made of. These pieces are called morphemes and they function as abstract, mental, meaning carriyng symbols in our mind.
Allophonic Variation The allo/eme relationship Eme- denotes the prefix allo-. Allo- refers to 2 or more phonemes allophone- 2 or more contextual changes, different pronunciation of the phoneme. Phoneme- is the abstract form /t/. Allophone is a concrete sound of an abstract form, these means all the different ways of pronunciation of one word by different people. The two allophone criteria A phoneme of a language is identified through a minimal pair, a pair of words that in meaning and in only one sound.
‘Meaning’ refers to how words are given meaning or description, explained in the subtopics semantics and lexicon while ‘grammar’ refers to the rules in which meaning and sounds come together, further explained by morphology and syntax, also subtopics of Linguistics. The three main purpose of language are called the expressive purpose, the informative purpose and the
cause and result, part and whole). From the cognitive point of view, metonymic reconsideration is based on the cognitive processes of concept association that reflects the co-appearance frequency of objects of reality fixed by concepts. This paper investigates the concept of metonymy in the context of transcultural problems as a way of describing and characterizing the subject attributively; it aims at a reconsideration of the canonical classification of types of English metonymy (as it exists in the language and culture of the English-speaking countries and appears in the mental and cultural systems of a native speaker) on the basis of the degree of associativeness with the subject. By subject we understand the agent of an action or the experiencer of a state described or implied
ESSAY I: GRAMMATICALITY AND ACCEPTABILITY IN RELATION TO COMPETENCE AND PERFORMANCE Introduction It is generally assumed that there is a difference between the “competence” and “performance” of native speakers. At least this is a widespread and well accepted notion in Chomskyan theory. In that theory “competence” is defined as one’s knowledge of language, whereas “performance” shows how one uses that knowledge to understand and utter sentences. This means that there is a strict line that distinguishes sentences in pure theory and real utterances as the actual use of language. Related to the competence-performance distinction are the terms “grammaticality” and “acceptability”.
For instance, the /iə/ vowels in /’siəriəs/ (serious) are a bit different in quality: the stressed /iə/ is distinct and clear, while the unstressed /iə/ is somewhat obscured. According to Prof.G.P.Torsuyev this type of word accent is qualitative accent. All existing languages have either the force or the musical type of word accent as