The child’s nature refers to the influence that genes play on development, while nurture refers to the influence of the environment. Which one has a more substantial impact on the child’s development? We now know that both combine to create the child; that nature affects nurture, and nurture affects nature. However, in what ways are the parents more influential than the peers and how are the peers more influential than the parents? From the moment of conception a child gets its genetic makeup from the parents, thus already beginning their impact on the child.
Evaluate two theories which seek to explain the development of attachment. Your evaluation must include reference to the nature-nurture debate. Discuss the long-term impact of early experiences on later development. Is our psychological behaviour a result from our genes? Or could it be because of the environment we are brought up into.
Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which is based on an evolutionary perspective. The theory suggests that evolution has produced a behaviour that is essential to survival. An infant that keeps close to their mother is more likely to survive. The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected. Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment.
The ‘Maturation theory’ believes development happens as a sequenced process, also stating that genes help is develop into the person we are meant to be. The environment we reside in only provides support for helping unfold talents. Inherited conditions usually dominate genes which effect behaviour in many ways; this could be inherited from a parent. Genetic influences on behaviour disorder which affect an individual’s behaviour regardless of the environment. Examples how this perspective can be applied in health and social care: If you are working with children or adults with a genetic disorder such as down-syndrome you would need to be aware of the behaviour symptoms which correlate to the disorder.
As the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and paediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.
He believes it is a biological process which takes place during a short space of ‘critical’ time. Additionally, he believed that this attachment with the primary care giver was essential for development in later life in the child’s relationships and reproduction. The learning theory has many advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include that the theory gives an adequate explanation of how attachments form. It also shows that
Color of eyes, straight or curly hair, pigmentation of the skin and certain diseases are all a function of the genes we inherit. Other physical characteristics, if not determined, appear to be at least strongly influenced by the genetic make-up of our biological parents. Those who adopt an extreme heredity position are known as nativists. Their basic assumption is that the characteristics of the human species as a whole are a product of evolution, and that individual differences are due to each person’s unique genetic code. Characteristics and differences that are not observable at birth, but which emerge later in life, are regarded as the product of maturation.
Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment. (12mark) Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which is based on an evolutionary perspective. The theory suggests that evolution has produced a behaviour that is essential to the survival to allow the passing on of genes. An infant that keeps close to their mother is more likely to survive. The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected.
The personal factors that contribute towards a child’s development are their genes which influence development of physical health and how the brain works. A Child’s environment, influences personality, potential and health, which will later be determined by how they are brought up. Genetic information is what triggers a disability, such as Down’s syndrome. This means that they may have an impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth so they will need extra support in daily activities. They also have different facial characteristics which can lead to bullying.
Examine one evolutionary explanation of behavior Before we had the technology to look at genes specifically, a theory was used to explain how we’ve adapted the traits we have today. Darwin’s theory was that those who adapt best to an environment will have a greater chance of surviving, having offspring, and passing their genes to their offspring. As our environment is always changing, we need to adapt our characteristics to survive in that specific environment. It is the whole aspect of adaptation. It is said that those who are better suited for a certain environment will be more like to breed and pass on these genes also known as natural selection.