The ULTIMATE Chemistry Semester 2 Study Guide! Iron: Fe+2 is ferrous Fe+3 is ferric Copper: Cu+1 is cuprous Cu+2 is cupric Lead: Pb+2is plumbous Pb+4 is plumbic Tin: Sn+2 is stannous Sn+4 is stannic Periodic Table TRENDS * As you move right along the periodic table… decreasing atomic radius, increasing ionization energy, increasing electronegativity, increasing electron affinity, constant shielding * As you move down the periodic table… increasing atomic radius, decreasing ionization energy, decreasing electronegativity, increasing shielding WTF is that stuff? * Atomic radius is the distance between the nuclei of atoms when they are involved in a chemical bond. As you increase the number of protons in the nucleus
Activation energy is defined as “the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur”. The activation energy depends on the particular reaction, but if the concentration of molecules increases then there is a higher chance of successful collisions, therefore a higher rate of reaction will take place. I predict this will happen because of the ‘collision theory’. Collision theory is the idea that particles must collide for a reaction to happen. A higher concentration means there are more molecules of the substance.
_______in homeostasis, negative feedback is used in the same way, by increasing the stimulus until it is excessive and then decreasing or stopping___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Gizmo Warm-up To survive, an organism must be able to maintain stable internal conditions in a changing environment. This process is called homeostasis. The Human Homeostasis Gizmo™ allows you to explore how the human body stays at a nearly constant temperature in different conditions. Notice the Air temp. and Body temp.
Describe the effect that radius changes have on the laminar flow of a fluid. The larger radius, the greater laminar flow. This is due to more room inside of the vessel for blood to travel. 4. Why do you think the plot was not linear?
Different compounds boil at different temperatures because each has a different, characteristic vapor pressure: compounds with higher vapor pressures will boil at lower temperatures. Boiling points are usually measured by recording the boiling point (or boiling range) on a thermometer while performing a distillation. This method is used whenever there is enough of the compound to perform a distillation. The distillation method of
One progress on TLC called high performance TLC (HPTLC; Sherma and Jain, 2000).HPTLC makes use of gel qualities that are finer, so that thinner plates and smaller. This allows faster separation times and better separation efficiency. HPTLC has improved reduced resolution and detection limits, so that the to walk two dimensions. To phospholipids visible on the TLC plates are used detection reagents. spots corresponding phospholipids may be carbonized by the addition of phosphomolybdic acid, sulfuric acid or copper sulfate in phosphoric acid, and then heating of the sample.
This means that if the pressure on the gas increases, the volume decreases proportionally; conversely, if the pressure decreses, the volume increases. Doubling the pressure cuts the volume in half; tripling the pressure reduces the volume to one-third its original value; quadrupling the pressure reduces the volume to one-fourth its original value. The mathematical equation for Boyle’s law is P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 Boyle’s law is consistent with kinetic molecular theory. The pressure that a gas exerts results from collisions of the gas molecules with the sides of the container. If the volume of a container holding a specific number of gas is increased, the total wall area of the container will also increase, and the nu Charles’s law p 170 The relationship between the temperature and the volume of a gas at constant pressure is called Charles’s law after the French scientist Jacques Charles.
c. Ψ = Ψp + Ψs Ψp, which is pressure potential and it, shows the tendency for water to move from an area from lower to higher pressure. Ψs, being solute potential, will show that water will move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. Ψ = -iCRT The ionization constant (i) will show that the greater the ionization lower the water potential, which increases water movement. The greater the concentration (C), the smaller the water potential and it increases the movement of water. The pressure constant (R) does not change water potential and movement.
Hypothesis With increasing temperature of sodium thiosulphate the reaction rate will increase as well. Justification As the collision theory states for a chemical reaction to occur particles need to collide at a certain speed and angle. Increasing the temperature gives particles more energy, so they move faster. As they move faster more collisions happen, hence more successful collision, which increases the rate of the reaction1. Materials> Hydrochloric acid HCl(l)> Sodium triosulphate Na2S2O3(l)> 250 ml3 beaker> 50 ml3 conical flask> 2 x 25 ml3 measuring cylinder> Thermometer> Stop clock> Tea kettle> Blank card> Pen Variables Reaction time is the dependent variable, as it depends on the temperature of the solution.
Also a larger concentration gradient produces a faster diffusion, and smaller molecules diffuse more rapidly than larger molecules. If you imagine a crystal of dye in a beaker of water, the crystal would be the solute because it is the dissolvable substance, and the water is the solvent because it’s what the solute dissolves into and there tends to be more of it, both of these form together to create a solution. If you look at the colour of the water just next to the crystal it would be