The transfer is often influenced by the Hydrologic cycle (water cycle). At many stages of the cycle, water changes in state. For instance, the evaporation of water from a lake will become vapour during the Hydrologic cycle. Whenever water molecules undergo a change in phase, thermal energy will be released or absorbed. Thermal energy is released when water goes from a liquid to a solid.
PART A : THE HYDRAULIC JUMPS 1.0 INTRODUCTION The concept of the hydraulic jump when the hydraulic drop that occurs at a sudden drop in the bottom of a channel, and the free surface flow around obstructions like bridge piers. A hydraulic jump forms when a supercritical flow changes into a subcritical flow. The change in the flow regime occurs with a sudden rise in water surface. Considerable turbulence, energy loss and air entrainment are produced in the hydraulic jump. A hydraulic is used for mixing chemicals in water supply systems, for dissipating energy below artificial channel controls, and as an aeration device to increase the dissolved oxygen in water.
The water vessel is attached to the heat source by metal rods, which heat the water directly and convert it to steam. The steam initially collects in an area above the water vessel known as the dome before exiting the boiler. The dome forces the steam to become highly condensed so that it will exit the boiler with a significant amount of pressure. Pressurized steam is particularly important for industrial applications such as powering turbines and other heavy equipment. All boilers have a safety valve, which allows excess steam to be released to prevent explosions.
It is a heat engine that converts energy into mechanical energy. It makes use of the fact that steam, when passing through a small opening that attains a high velocity. Condenser The condenser is a major component of the power plant where it receive exhaust steam from the last stage of the turbine and condenses it to water for reuse as feed water in the boiler system. It can be classified under a direct contact type or a surface condenser. Other component(s) includes: Pressure gauge Steam turbine valve Burner switch Water level gauge c) (iv) The Rankine cycle efficiency Assume steady flow, KE = PE = 0 From a 1st law balance, we know energy in = energy out ------------------------------------------------- Device 1st Law Balance
Ferromagnetic materials enhance the magnetic field of the electromagnet. Electromagnetic are devices that use electricity to generate a magnetic field. A magnetic field is created when the electric current flows through the entirety of the wire attached to the conductor and emitting a circular magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field is dictated by the flow of electricity. The current is strongest near the center of the conductor carrying the current of electricity.
This electricity will be transported to end-users via interconnection facilities, including transformers and distribution lines, some of which shall cross Lake Ontario underwater for about 3.2miles. Outline of Contents: 1. PUBLIC/MUNICIPAL CONSULTATIONS 2. WIND FARM DESIGN & ASSESSMENT 3. ELECTRIC GRID/TRANSMISSION 4.
When the stator winding is connected to a 3 phase AC source, it establishes a rotating magnetic field rotating at the synchronous speed. It is based on the Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction which states that wherever a conductor is placed in a time varying magnetic field emf are induced which are called induced emf, if inductor circuit are closed, currents are also induced which is called induced current. As the rotor winding in an induction motor are either closed through an external resistance or directly shorted by end ring, and cut the stator rotating magnetic field, an emf is induced in the rotor copper bar and due to this emf, a current flow through the rotor
Assignment 1 Hydraulic Fundamentals ‘Basic Theory The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός (hydraulikos) which in turn originates from ὕδωρ (hydor, Greek for water) and αὐλός (aulos, meaning pipe). In applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids, there is a topic called Hydraulics. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. Hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids in fluid power. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, computational fluid dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behavior and erosion.
The primary coolant then flows through hundreds of small stainless-steel tubes in the heat exchangers, which are part of the steam generator. These heat exchanger tubes are surrounded by the water of the secondary system which is heated by the primary tubes. This causes the production of wet steam. In the boiling water reactor, unlike the pressurized reactor, the steam is introduced directly into the core. Jet pumps circulate the coolant water along the individual fuel rods in each fuel assembly in the core where it boils and becomes a two part steam- water mixture.