Hunter Gather Society

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For the vast majority of history, humans have been hunter-gatherer-scavengers, killing animals and foraging plants to survive. Societies were small and nomadic and food surpluses were non-existent. However, ten thousand years ago, some humans adopted agriculture and animal husbandry, in other words they began domesticating plants and animals. Hunter-gather lifestyle in contrast to farmers, had social organization, equality, and environmental sustainability. Hunter-gatherers were nomads who lived in tribes and relied on hunting, fishing and gathering wild fruits. Their social organization was based on kinship, age, and gender. Kinship relations were maintained among different multifamily bands through marriage. Generally, people married outside their own band. Gender relations were related to the division of labor, men hunt and women gather.(Guns, Germs, and Steel) Hunter-gatherers moved seasonally to optimize different sources of food as they become available.(Guns, Germs, and Steel) On the other hand farmers were settled in one place. Living in one spot permanently means exploiting a relatively small amount of land very intensively (rather than exploiting a large amount of land extensively, as hunter-gatherers did), and over a long period of time. Agriculture made human communities dependent on relatively few plants; the main crops which they grew rather than on the many different kinds of plants which hunter-gathers used. (Burt) To survive, agriculturalists had to gather all their food for the year at one or two or three harvest times, rather than gathering year round. Agriculture brought class divisions because farming introduced the concept of land ownership and thereby, there was a division among labor and owner, and on the one hand, it caused the elite became wealthier, but on the other hand, most people became poorer. In hunting and gathering society,
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