When you get down to the core concepts humans are selfish in that they only care for themselves. Thus we do not engage in act of generosity without intentions of self-gain. We help the disabled to raise our self-image. We help tutor a fellow student not just to help them improve, but as we’ll make ourselves feel superior. Although we might not show our selfish intentions we become arrogant and full of ourselves.
Two types of egoism: psychological egoism which states that humans are biologically constituted so that we by necessity act in our own self-interests and Ethical egoism which states that we ought to act in our best or rational self- interest even though we don’t always do. Ethical egoism is the use of reason to calculate which actions are best for a person’s self-interest. Ethical egoism is similar to ethical subjectivism because they both focus on people looking out for their own interests. However, Ethical egoism differs from ethical subjectivism because ethical egoism is when people look out for their own best self-interests. Unlike ethical subjectivism which is when people act on what feels good or what they believe is right for them.
Unlike Rawls, Nozick sees flaws in the difference principle. To him, it is not considered unjust to allow poor people to starve. Nozick actually believes in the opposite of what government should do in this scenario. He sees a government with the power to distribute economic and social goods to the lesser advantaged, as too powerful and unjust. Nozick’s idea of just actions is based off of the idea of voluntary exchanges.
A conclusion can be derived from the reading on whether Ethical Egoism is truly a moral theory. Within the reading, along with Ethical Egoism, Psychological Egoism is discussed. Psychological Egoism differs from Ethical Egoism in that it asserts that each person does in fact pursue their own self-interest alone. To support the theory of Psychological Egoism it is stated that altruistic acts of kindness are performed only to produce good feelings about oneself. Another supporting argument of Ethical Egoism is that we always do what we most want to do.
In this case, Joe is working unethically, so his actions must be an immoral example for the employees. Also, Joe´s unethical acts will be affect the organization’s performance because Joe is not hiring the best prospective employees; he is hiring the most pessimistic people. Additionally, I think that Joe is using utilitarian-type reasoning. Utilitarian-type reasoning means that it is easy to take the welfare of few individuals over the welfare of another group of individuals. In this way, I think Joe is using utilitarian-type reasoning because he is thinking just in his benefit, but he is not thinking of stakeholders’ benefits.
I will be explaining these theories further in my essay and scrutinizing these theories and presenting its criticisms. Finally I will conclude with my opinion about crime and its causes. First of all, right realism is based on a negative perception regarding human nature. According to right realists, human beings are naturally selfish and greedy. Thus they argue that one of the causes of crime is merely one’s rational choice.
A small man does not have as much knowledge as a superior person because a superior person is wiser and more intelligent. Comfort means something that they like and enjoy. It could mean expensive and is not worthwhile and won’t last for a long time. The small man is obviously not as smart as a superior man so they would choose the non reusable drink bottle. The non reusable drink bottle is an unwise decision because it may have something special that they would enjoy but it is harmful to the environment which will only be used once.
Pro-social behaviour: selfish or selfless? Discuss with reference to social psychology research. ‘’Pro-social behaviour is a broad category of acts that are valued positively by society- in contrast with antisocial behaviour. Being pro-social includes being both being helpful and altruistic. It also embraces acts of charity, cooperation, friendship, rescue, sacrifice, sharing, sympathy and trust.
First and foremost, be nice and helpful to people. Nowadays, people can be arrogant and selfish. They prefer to mind their own business without concerning the welfare of other. I am just being curious, are we loosing anything by being nice to the others? So, what is stopping us from being helpful?
If the man with one eye comes forward to show them to the best of his ability how to move about, is it possible to find fault with him for his kind act? It does not create any problems for the blind, but guides them wherever they wish to go. Instead of criticising him, we must be thankful to him for his generosity. It is in this perspective that one should look at the meaning of this proverb. Here we can turn round and cite another proverb ‘Half a loaf is better than no loaf’ in defence of the one-eyed man assuming the leadership of those who are totally blind.