Human Pathogens, Environmental Bacterium and World Records Essay

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The genus of Francisella tularensis is Francisella while the species is F. tularensis. Similar to many other intracellular bacteria that tend to break out of phagosomal compartments in order to replicate in the cytosol, F. tularensis strains also produce diverse hemolytic agents (1). This helps to facilitate the breakdown of the phagosome. Particularly, NlyA, a hemolysin protein, with similarity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa HlyA was characterized in biovar novicida whereas an acid phospholipase C AcpA has been found in other strains to act as a hemolysin(1). Even though F. tularensis does not have a virulence secretion systems that is normal of some better-characterized pathogenic bacteria, it does have a number of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins that can be linked to the secretion of virulence factors. F. tularensis is able to survive outside of a mammalian host for weeks(1). This bacteria can be found in water, grassland, and haystacks. F. tularensis and thus infects a number of small mammals such as voles, rabbits, and muskrats, as well as humans. Even still, there has not been a case where tularemia has been shown to transfer from human to human but instead tularemia is caused through contact with infected vectors like ticks, mosquitos, and deer flies or animals(1). Thiomargarita namibiensis, with genus Thiomargarita and species T. namibiensis, can be found in the continental shelf in the ocean sediments(4). It was discovered in 1999 and is still currently the largest bacterium ever discovered, with a width up to 750 μm. This makes it possible to be seen with the naked eye(4). One unusual adaptation of this bacterium is its reductive division pattern. In extreme conditions such as starvation, this bacterium can undergo an unusual form of division. The numbers of its cells increase, but there is no net change in volume. This division pattern is a survival

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