Human Development Essay

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Citations: Howard Spodek, "Human Origins and Human Cultures," The World's History, 2006. William Cavander, "Breakthrough to History," Plagues and Peoples, 1977. The first chapter, Man the Hunter, examines the disease environment of early humans and the second, talks about the changes that the development of agriculture and human expansion brought to it. The latter chapter, Breakthrough to History, primarily focused on the developments from a carnivorous lifestyle to a more omnivorous one. It also shows the different changes in lifestyles from agriculture, crowd diseases and the rapid evolution disease organisms in both humans and animals. Agriculture lead to many changes which included a shift to a more sedentary lifestyle and greater communities. The transition form a more carnivorous lifestyle can also be seen in our ancestors when larger animals disappeared. About 50,000 years ago their became a great number of extinctions of large-bodied game in Africa, which eventually lead to Asia, Europe, and the Americas (McNeill 54). McNeill stated, "When large-bodied animals disappeared, other foods had to be searched out. Under these pressures, our ancestors became omnivorous again like their distant primate forebears, feeding on an expanded number of plants and animal species." This was the first time food resources form the sea were taken advantage of (McNeill 55). It is also shown that because of the recession of the larger animals, new ways of preparing food were also developed, for example, through soaking, grinding, cooking and fermenting (McNeill 55). McNeill also mentions that those who refuse to submit to the hardships of the new farming way of life most probably did not survive along with those who did attempt to adapt the lifestyle but just could not save enough seed to plant for the following year (McNeill 55). These people were quickly eliminated

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